The ocean are a fundamental component of the Earth’s climate regulation, life and its carbon cycle. By burning fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution, and thus emitting large amounts of carbon into the atmosphere, humans are changing the ocean in several ways. In particular, the ocean is absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) at such an unprecedented rate that it is rapidly changing its chemistry, resulting in “ocean acidification”, a reduction in pH, carbonate ion concentration and the ocean’s buffering capacity. Ocean acidification is a global environmental issue posing a threat to open ocean and coastal marine ecosystems, including semi-enclosed seas such as the Mediterranean Sea. (…)
Ziveri P., Delpiazzo E., Bosello F., Eboli F. & van den Bergh J., 2017. Adaptation policies and strategies as a response to ocean acidification and warming in the Mediterranean Sea. In Nunes P. A. L. D., Svensson L. E. & Markandya A. (Eds.), Handbook on the Economics and Management of Sustainable Oceans, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 339-355. Book chapter (excerpts).