Posts Tagged 'webpage'

Coastal observatory for climate, CO2 and acidification for the global South society (COCAS)

Sorbonne Université, LOCEAN-IPSL

Change humanity’s relationship with the ocean, Create a digital representation of the Ocean, Develop a sustainable and equitable ocean economy, Expand the Global Ocean Observing System, Indian Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, Project, Protect and restore ecosystems and biodiversity, Skills, knowledge and technology for all, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, Sustainably feed the global population, Unlock ocean-based solutions to climate change

The COCAS community builds on and uses a science-based decision support system, for sustainable development of the marine Exclusive Economic Zones of the Global South countries.

Its mission is three-fold:

  • First, to implement and sustain coastal ocean long-term observatories assessing ongoing marine environmental changes and their impact on a rich marine biodiversity and multicultural populations;
  • Second, to create a common language and common practices for stakeholders based on data, intelligent information, and technology;
  • Third, to give birth to a new generation of scientists, end-users and decision-makers, working together for the integrated coastal management of tomorrow in the Global South.

Start Date: 01/04/2021

End Date: 31/12/2030

This project is hosted by the programme Ocean Observing Co-Design: evolving ocean observing for a sustainable future.

Contacts

Diana Ruiz-Pino: diana.ruiz-pino@locean.ipsl.fr
Alban Lazar: alban.lazar@locean.ipsl.fr

Continue reading ‘Coastal observatory for climate, CO2 and acidification for the global South society (COCAS)’

State of global climate in 2021 – WMO provisional report

State of Climate in 2021

Geneva, 31 October 2021 (WMO) – Record atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and associated accumulated heat have propelled the planet into uncharted territory, with far-reaching repercussions for current and future generations, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

The past seven years are on track to be the seven warmest on record, according to the provisional WMO State of the Global Climate 2021 report, based on data for the first nine months of 2021. A temporary cooling “La Niña” event early in the year means that 2021 is expected to be “only” the fifth to seventh warmest year on record. But this does not negate or reverse the long-term trend of rising temperatures.The report combines input from multiple United Nations agencies, national meteorological and hydrological services and scientific experts. It highlights impacts on food security and population displacement, harming crucial ecosystems and undermining progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals. It was released at a press conference on the opening day of COP26.

Global sea level rise accelerated since 2013 to a new high n 2021, with continued ocean warming and ocean acidification.

The report combines input from multiple United Nations agencies, national meteorological and hydrological services and scientific experts. It highlights impacts on food security and population displacement, harming crucial ecosystems and undermining progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals.

“The provisional WMO State of the Global Climate 2021 report draws from the latest scientific evidence to show how our planet is changing before our eyes. From the ocean depths to mountain tops, from melting glaciers to relentless extreme weather events, ecosystems and communities around the globe are being devastated. COP26 must be a turning point for people and planet,” said United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres.

“Scientists are clear on the facts.  Now leaders need to be just as clear in their actions. The door is open; the solutions are there. COP26 must be a turning point. We must act now – with ambition and solidarity – to safeguard our future and save humanity,” said Mr Guterres in a video statement.

The provisional State of the Climate 2021 report is released at the start of the UN Climate Change negotiations, COP26, in Glasgow. It provides a snapshot of climate indicators such as greenhouse gas concentrations, temperatures, extreme weather, sea level, ocean warming and ocean acidification, glacier retreat and ice melt, as well as socio-economic impacts.

It is one of the flagship scientific reports which will inform negotiations and which will be showcased at the Science pavilion hosted by WMO, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the UK Met Office. During COP26, WMO will launch the Water and Climate Coalition to coordinate water and climate action, and the Systematic Observations Financing Facility to improve weather and climate observations and forecasts which are vital to climate change adaptation.

Key messages

Ocean

Around 90% of the accumulated heat in the Earth system is stored in the ocean, which is measured through Ocean Heat Content.

The upper 2000m depth of the ocean continued to warm in 2019 reaching a new record high. A preliminary analysis based on seven global data sets suggests that 2020 exceeded that record. All data sets agree that ocean warming rates show a particularly strong increase in the past two decades and it is expected that the ocean will continue to warm in the future.

Much of the ocean experienced at least one ‘strong’ Marine Heatwave at some point in 2021 – with the exception of the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean (due to La Niña) and much of the Southern Ocean. The Laptev and Beaufort Sea in the Arctic experienced “severe” and “extreme” marine heatwaves from January to April 2021.

The ocean absorbs around 23% of the annual emissions of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere and so is becoming more acidic. Open ocean surface pH has declined globally over the last 40 years and is now the lowest it has been for at least 26,000 years. Current rates of pH change are unprecedented since at least that time. As the pH of the ocean decreases, its capacity to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere also declines.

1960-2020 ensemble mean time series
1960-2020 ensemble mean time series and ensemble standard deviation of global ocean heat content anomalies relative to the 2005-2017 climatology. Von Schuckmann et al., 2020.

Continue reading ‘State of global climate in 2021 – WMO provisional report’

New report shows ocean acidification (OA) in Puget Sound waters continues as our understanding of patterns grows

New Report Released: Automated buoys and volunteers helped gather critical Puget Sound data during pandemic

On October 27, the Puget Sound Marine Waters Work Group of the Puget Sound Ecosystem Monitoring Program released the tenth annual report on marine water conditions in Puget Sound providing a comprehensive long-term view and current assessment of the Puget Sound marine ecosystem. There were few extreme weather or ecological events in 2020, but overall, conditions in Puget Sound were generally warmer, sunnier, and wetter than in typical years. The report further reveals patterns and trends in numerous environmental parameters, including plankton, water quality, climate, and marine life. The observations in this report collectively provide both a comprehensive long-term view and current assessment of the Puget Sound marine ecosystem.

Calm water on a cloudy day with some blue in the sky with an empty ferry terminal and a ferry in the distance
New Puget Sound Marine Waters 2020 Report Released:  Automated buoys and volunteers helped gather critical Puget Sound data during pandemic. Photo Credit: Puget Sound Partnership 2021

In Puget Sound, ocean acidification (OA) continues as does our understanding of patterns. Annual average atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) values over Hood Canal were high relative to globally averaged marine surface air, yet were at the same level as in 2019. OA in Puget Sound is of particular concern as estuarine processes, both natural and human-mediated, can also increase the CO2 content and lower the pH of marine waters. Moreover, coastal upwelling brings deeper waters with naturally higher CO2 concentrations upwards and into Puget Sound via the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Thus, Puget Sound is influenced by a variety of drivers that exacerbate the growing OA signal, making our waters particularly sensitive to these conditions. All of these changes have ramifications for marine food webs and are areas of active current research, including PMEL’s  Moored Autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2TM) system collecting on atmospheric and surface seawater xCO2 (mole fraction of CO2) at the Ćháʔba· mooring off of La Push, WA and at the Cape Elizabeth mooring

Having high-quality observations of carbon in the coastal environment is important for understanding coastal ocean carbon and its impact throughout the water column and the ecosystem. Learn more about PMEL’s Carbon and Ocean Acidification Research.

Read the full report here.

Continue reading ‘New report shows ocean acidification (OA) in Puget Sound waters continues as our understanding of patterns grows’

What is ocean acidification? Find out how research at Plymouth is tackling this global carbon dioxide problem (text & video)

Explore the science behind falling ocean pH and the impact this has on marine ecosystem balance

Ocean acidification occurs when carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed rapidly into the ocean.

It reacts with water molecules (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). This compound then breaks down into a hydrogen ion (H+) and bicarbonate (HCO3). These hydrogen ions decrease seawater pH.

In chemical terms, ocean acidfication is described like this:

CO2 + H2O → (H+) + (HCO3)

The rising CO2 problem

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s, the rise of fossil fuel-powered machinery has been the catalyst for the emission of billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into our atmosphere.

Carbon dioxide levels have now risen by 30 per cent since the Industrial Revolution.

Scientists now know that about a quarter of carbon dioxide emissions have been absorbed by the oceans.

Monitoring shows that burning fossil fuels has caused unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry due to ocean uptake of millions of tonnes of CO2 each year.

Falling pH

Surface ocean waters are alkaline; on average pH 8.1. But because a quarter of human CO2 emissions are taken up by surface seawater this could drop to pH 7.8 by the end of the century, lower than at any time in human history.

The change in ocean acidity will not make it more dangerous for us to swim or surf in.

Seas are not actually going to be acidic – they will still be more alkaline than tap water.

Ocean acidification is happening rapidly worldwide. We have shown that this has knock-on effects that degrade marine ecosystems and impact fishing industries and food supplies. Plans are in place to ensure that University of Plymouth research is strategically aligned to inform the United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) and embed solutions that slow ocean degradation and build recovery of our coastal resources.

Continue reading ‘What is ocean acidification? Find out how research at Plymouth is tackling this global carbon dioxide problem (text & video)’

Coastal Management Journal – Ocean acidification: insight for policy and integrated management

Today the International Alliance to Combat Ocean Acidification, alongside several U.S. state partners released a special issue of Coastal Management Journal, “Ocean Acidification: Insight for Policy and Integrated Management,” published online by Taylor and Francis.

The special issue examines opportunities and challenges facing U.S. states in responding to ocean acidification (OA) and includes 42 authors representing government and non-government institutions across nine states.

Many of the authors are resource managers on the front lines of addressing OA, using a variety of strategies to assess information needs, develop data sets, build partnerships inside and outside state government and formulate approaches that link ocean change science to management at local and regional scales.

Impacts of climate change and increasing OA pose significant risk to states, communities and economies that enjoy and depend on thriving fisheries and shellfish production related to commercial, subsistence or cultural practices.  Although the issue consolidates current and emerging U.S. state policy directives and practices, local and international actors may benefit from lessons learned and case studies presented—further advancing subnational and national efforts to address climate and ocean change.

“Lessons learned and partnerships forged at a state level have strengthened regional alignment and international vision for action,” said Dr. Caren Braby, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife on the special issue’s contributors.

The issue is comprised of four peer-reviewed articles and two essays, including:

  • Opportunities for State Governments and In-Region Partners to Address Ocean Acidification Through Management and Policy Frameworks (Turner, et al.)
  • Understanding and Advancing Natural Resource Management in the Context of Changing Ocean Conditions (Keil, et al.)
  • Monitoring Ocean Acidification Within State Borders:  Lessons Learned from Washington State (Gonski, et al.)
  • Capacity Building to Address Ocean Change: Organizing Across Communities of Place, Practice and Governance to Achieve Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Resilience in Oregon (Essay by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.)
  • Community Science for Coastal Acidification Monitoring and Research (Gassett, et al.)
  • International and Domestic Leadership by U.S. States on Ocean Acidification (Essay by Ocean Conservancy.)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Ocean and Cryosphere in Changing Climate (IPCC, 2019) has emphasized that climate change is already having major impacts on our ocean. The report warns that ocean acidification is “virtually certain” to continue to be exacerbated by carbon emissions, with a high emissions path posing the most significant risks for severe and large changes.  The Paris Agreement brought into force by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) provides a framework for 195 nations to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  

It is against this backdrop that subnational governments, including U.S. states, are sharing information and responding to climate and ocean change by setting ambitious goals and targets of their own to mitigate, adapt and build resiliency.

“State have the advantage of being able to act quickly, innovate and experiment with programs, investments and pilot projects.  They are typically the primary regulator—or strong influencer—in implementing most ocean-based climate solutions and responses,” said Whitney Berry, Senior Manager of Climate Policy, Ocean Conservancy.

For more information, contact Jessie Turner at Jturner@cascadiapolicy.com

Continue reading ‘Coastal Management Journal – Ocean acidification: insight for policy and integrated management’

AR6 Climate change 2021: the physical science basis

The Working Group I contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report addresses the most up-to-date physical understanding of the climate system and climate change, bringing together the latest advances in climate science, and combining multiple lines of evidence from paleoclimate, observations, process understanding, and global and regional climate simulations.

Disclaimer: The Summary for Policymakers (SPM) is the approved version from the 14th session of Working Group I and 54th Session of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and remains subject to final copy-editing and layout.

The Technical Summary (TS), the full Report Chapters, the Annexes and the Supplementary Materials are the Final Government Distribution versions, and remain subject to revisions following the SPM approval, corrigenda, copy-editing, and layout.

Full report

CHANGING by Alisa Singer
Changing by the artist Alisa Singer
“As we witness our planet transforming around us we watch, listen, measure … respond.”

Continue reading ‘AR6 Climate change 2021: the physical science basis’

ARGO

Argo is an international program that collects information from inside the ocean using a fleet of robotic instruments that drift with the ocean currents and move up and down between the surface and a mid-water level. Each instrument (float) spends almost all its life below the surface. The name Argo was chosen because the array of floats works in partnership with the Jason earth observing satellites that measure the shape of the ocean surface. (In Greek mythology Jason sailed on his ship the Argo in search of the golden fleece).

Argo. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Biogeochemical Argo

An extension of the Argo program to include biogeochemical observations

Biogeochemical Argo. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

GOOS – The Global Ocean Observing System

The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) is a sustained collaborative system of ocean observations, encompassing in situ networks, satellite systems, governments, UN agencies and individual scientists. We are organized around a series of components undertaking requirements assessment, observing implementation, innovation through projects, and a core team

GOOS. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Southern Cross University: Centre for Coastal Biogeochemistry

The Centre undertakes research on the Global Change issues of nutrient over-enrichment (Eutrophication), ocean acidification, climate change, greenhouse gases and hypoxia.

Southern Cross University. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

WOAC – Washington Ocean Acidification Center

The Washington Ocean Acidification Center was established in 2013 following the recommendation of the Washington state Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification.

WOAC. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Foras na Mara Marine Institute

The Marine Institute was set up under the Marine Institute Act 1991: to undertake, to coordinate, to promote and to assist in marine research and development and to provide such services related to research and development, that in the opinion of the Institute, will promote economic development and create employment and protect the marine environment.

Foras na Mara Marine Institute. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

MarineBio

Since 1998, The MarineBio Conservation Society (MarineBio) has been a nonprofit volunteer marine conservation and science education group working online together to educate the world about ocean life, marine biology, marine conservation, and to provide a sea ethic that we should all attempt to follow.

MarineBio. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Woods Hole: What is Ocean Acidification?

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when humans began burning coal in large quantities, the world’s ocean water has gradually become more acidic. Like global warming, this phenomenon, which is known as ocean acidification, is a direct consequence of increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth’s atmosphere.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

MCCIP – Marine Climate Change Impacts Partneship

The United Kingdom Marine Climate Change Impacts Partnership (MCCIP) brings together scientists, government, its agencies and NGOs to provide coordinated advice on climate change impacts and adaptation around our coast and in our seas.

We collate and synthesise evidence on climate change impacts and adaptation in a timely, impartial and independent manner, and disseminate this information to stakeholders.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Pacific Islands – Climate Adaptation Science Center

Observed climatic trends across the Pacific Basin, rising sea levels, increasing sea surface temperatures, shifts in ocean chemistry with increased ocean acidification, increasingly variable precipitation and wind patterns, rising air temperatures, increasing storm and cyclone intensity, and more prominent droughts, all promise growing stresses on terrestrial, coastal, and marine ecosystems, as well as on human communities. This wide, complex, intertwined spread of issues offer many challenges.

Pacific Islands – Climate Adaptation Science Center. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

EMODnet – The European Marine Observation and Data Network

The European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) is the long-term initiative launched in 2009 by the DG MARE (EU Commission’s Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries). EMODnet is part of the Blue Growth strategy, Marine Knowledge 2020, and its main task is to ensure that European marine data will become easily accessible, interoperable, and free of restrictions on use.
EMODnet Chemistry is focused on eutrophication, ocean acidification, contamination, and marine litter issues which are relevant to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and to global climate change. The data have been brought together for different group of variables in seawater, sediment and biota.

EMODnet. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

OCEANA

Pollution and contaminants enter the oceans through a number of outlets: offshore oil and gas drilling, coal-burning power plants, aquaculture, mercury-based chlorine plants, plastics, marine debris and more. Once these toxins enter the environment, they can cause long-lasting damage to marine ecosystems and adversely impact wildlife and fisheries.

OCEANA. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

JPI Oceans

JPI Oceans is an intergovernmental platform that strives to increase the impact of national investments in marine and maritime research and innovation.  By joining forces, JPI Oceans focuses on long-term collaboration between EU Member States, Associated Countries and international partners. The platform provides its member countries with a shared voice, strategic agenda and action plan to address complex ocean-related societal challenges that cannot be solved at national level.

JPI Oceans. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Future Earth Coasts

Future Earth Coasts is a Global Research Project of Future Earth, a platform for translating sustainability knowledge into action that includes a number of United Nations agencies, intergovernmental bodies and organisations such as the International Council for Science.

Future Earth Coasts. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage


  • Reset

Subscribe

OA-ICC Highlights


%d bloggers like this: