Archive for the 'General Articles' Category

Woods Hole: What is Ocean Acidification?

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, when humans began burning coal in large quantities, the world’s ocean water has gradually become more acidic. Like global warming, this phenomenon, which is known as ocean acidification, is a direct consequence of increasing levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) in Earth’s atmosphere.

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

NOAA – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

In the 200-plus years since the industrial revolution began, the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased due to human actions. During this time, the pH of surface ocean waters has fallen by 0.1 pH units. This might not sound like much, but the pH scale is logarithmic, so this change represents approximately a 30 percent increase in acidity.

NOAA, 01 April 2020. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

IUCN: ocean acidification

The oceans have absorbed between 24% and 33% of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during the past five decades. While this uptake provides a valuable service to human societies by moderating the rate and severity of climate change, it comes at a cost for the oceans. The massive input of CO2 generates sweeping changes in the chemistry of seawater, especially on the carbonate system. These changes are collectively referred to as “ocean acidification” because increased CO2 lowers seawater pH (i.e. increases its acidity).

IUCN – International Union for Conservation of Nature. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Monitoring ocean carbon and ocean acidification

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration has increased by 42% since the onset of the industrial revolution due to emissions from fossil fuel burning, cement production and land-use change…

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

WMO – World Meteorological Organization, 7 July 1905. Resource.

State of the global climate 2020

In order to unpack such complexity, the WMO State of the Global Climate uses seven Climate Indicators to describe the changing climate providing a broad view of the climate at a global scale. They are used to monitor the domains most relevant to climate change, including the composition of the atmosphere, the energy changes that arise from the accumulation of greenhouse gases and other factors, as well as the responses of land, oceans and ice. The following site aims to provide an overview of the annually produced State of the Climate report.

Resource type: report

Resource format: webpage

WMO – World Metereological Organization, 1 April 2021. Resource.

NIWA: Ocean Acidification

The on-going rise of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is not only changing our climate; it is also changing our oceans. More than a quarter of the CO2 released to the air by human activities is absorbed by the world’s oceans.

Resource type: website

Resource format: video

NIWA. Resource.

Measuring ocean acidification: new technology for a new era of ocean chemistry

Human additions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere are creating a cascade of chemical consequences that will eventually extend to the bottom of all the world’s oceans.

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

ACS Publications: Environmental Science and Technology, 1 April 2014. Resource.

An enhanced ocean acidification observing network: from people to technology to data synthesis and information exchange

A successful integrated ocean acidification (OA) observing network must include (1) scientists and technicians from a range of disciplines from physics to chemistry to biology to technology development; (2) government, private, and intergovernmental support; (3) regional cohorts working together on regionally specific issues; …

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

Frontiers, 1 June 2019. Resource.

Royal Society Publishing: Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100.

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

The Royal Society Publishing: Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society A – Matematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 1 September 2012. Resource.

Introduccin a la acidificacion oceanica: lo que es, lo que sabemos y lo que puede suceder (Spanish)

Durante los Ultimos 200 años aproximadamente, la quema generalizada de combustibles fúsiles, la deforestación y la producción de cemento han liberado más de 500 mil millones de toneladas métricas de dióxido de carbono (CO2 ) a la atmósfera de las cuales aproximadamente la mitad en los últimos 30 años. Esta liberación masiva de carbono previamente ‘almacenado’ incrementa el efecto invernadero natural y pone en peligro la futura estabilidad del clima de la Tierra…

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

IUCN, 1 December 2017. Resource.

Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming

…As research on the topic expands at an exponential rate, a comprehensive understanding of the variability in organisms’ responses and corresponding levels of certainty is necessary to forecast the ecological effects. Here, we perform the most comprehensive meta-analysis to date by synthesizing the results of 228 studies examining biological responses to ocean acidification…

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

Wiley, 1 February 2013. Resource.

Anthropogenic changes to seawater buffer capacity combined with natural reef metabolism induce extreme future coral reef CO2 conditions

Ocean acidification, via an anthropogenic increase in seawater carbon dioxide (CO2), is potentially a major threat to coral reefs and other marine ecosystems. However, our understanding of how natural short-term diurnal CO2 variability in coral reefs influences longer term anthropogenic ocean acidification remains unclear. Here, we combine observed natural carbonate chemistry variability with future carbonate chemistry predictions for a coral reef flat in the Great Barrier Reef based on the RCP8.5 CO2 emissions scenario…

Resource type: article

Resource format: webpage

Wiley, 1 January 2013. Resource.

Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO2 emissions scenarios

Anthropogenic CO2 emissions directly affect atmospheric chemistry but also have a strong influence on the oceans. Gattuso et al., review how the physics, chemistry, and ecology of the oceans might be affected based on two CO2 emission trajectories: one business as usual and one with aggressive reductions…

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

AAAS – ScienceMag, 1 July 2015. Resource.

Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification

Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2 degrees C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved…

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

AAAS – ScienceMag, 1 December 2007. Resource.

The geological record of ocean acidification

Ocean acidification may have severe consequences for marine ecosystems; however, assessing its future impact is difficult because laboratory experiments and field observations are limited by their reduced ecologic complexity and sample period, respectively.

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

AAAS – ScienceMag, 1 March 2012. Resource.

Detecting regional anthropogenic trends in ocean acidification against natural variability

…Ocean observations are severely limited with respect to providing reliable estimates of the signal-to-noise ratio of human-induced trends in carbonate chemistry against natural factors. Using three Earth system models we show that the current anthropogenic trend in ocean acidification already exceeds the level of natural variability by up to 30 times on regional scales…

Resource type: article

Resource format: webpage

Nature, 1 January 2012. Resource.

Economic costs of ocean acidification: a look into the impacts on global shellfish production

…By performing a partial-equilibrium analysis, we estimate global and regional economic costs of production loss of mollusks due to ocean acidification. Our results show that the costs for the world as a whole could be over 100 billion USD with an assumption of increasing demand of mollusks with expected income growths combined with a business-as-usual emission trend towards the year 2100…

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

Springer, 1 January 2012. Resource.

Ten ways states can combat ocean acidification (and why they should)

The ocean is becoming more acidic worldwide as a result of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other pollutants. This fundamental change is likely to have substantial ecological and economic consequences globally. In this Article, we provide a toolbox for understanding and addressing the drivers of an acidifying ocean.

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

SelectedWorks, 1 January 2013. Resource.

Actualización de lo que sabemos sobre la acidificación de los océanos y de los principales retos globales (Spanish)

Es asombroso pensar que hace sólo diez años casi nadie había oído hablar de la acidificación
del océano. Ahora es mucho más ampliamente comprendido que la creciente cantidad
de dióxido de carbono (CO2) que emitimos en el aire por nuestras actividades está
reaccionando con el océano alterando su química, recorriéndolo a lo largo de la escala hacia
la acidez y, entre otros efectos, reduciendo la disponibilidad de iones de carbonato que
necesitan muchos animales marinos y plantas para construir sus conchas y esqueletos…

Resource type: article

Resource format: document/pdf

IAEA, 4 July 1905. Resource.

Acidificación: Cmo afecta el CO2 a los océanos? (Spanish)

“Los océanos no sólo están aumentando de nivel y de temperatura, sino que también se vuelven más ácidos”

Resource type: website

Resource format: document/pdf

Divulga Meteo, 1 June 2009. Resource.


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