Carbonate system in the Cabo Frio upwelling

The quantitative assessment of the carbonate system represents one of the biggest challenges toward the “Sustainable Development Goals” defined by the United Nations in 2015. In this sense, the present study investigated the Spatio-temporal dynamics of the carbonate system and the effects of the El Niño and La Niña phenomena over the Cabo Frio upwelling area. The physical characterization of the site was carried out through data on wind speed and sea surface temperature. Water samples were also collected during the oceanographic cruise onboard the Diadorim R/V (Research Vessel). From these samples, the parameters of absolute and practical salinity, density, pH, total alkalinity, carbonate, calcite, aragonite, bicarbonate dissolved inorganic carbon, carbon dioxide, partial pressure of carbon, calcium, and total boron were obtained. The highest average concentration of bicarbonate in S1 (2018 µmol/kg) seems to contribute to the dissolved inorganic carbon values (2203 µmol/kg). The values of calcite saturation state, aragonite saturation state, and carbonate were higher on the surface of each station (calcite saturation state = 4.80–5.48; aragonite saturation state = 3.10–3.63, and carbonate = 189–216 µmol/kg). The mean values of pH were similar in the day/night samples (7.96/7.97). The whole carbonate system was calculated through thermodynamic modeling with the Marine Chemical Analysis (AQM) program loaded with the results of the following parameters: temperature, salinity, total alkalinity, and pH parameters. This manuscript presents original data on the carbonate system and the “acidification” process influenced by the Cabo Frio upwelling, which directly depends on the El Niño and La Niña phenomena oscillations in the sea surface temperature.

Silva C. A. R. e., de Godoy Fernandes L. V., de Souza F. E. S., Marotta H., da Costa Fernandes F., Machado Senez Mello T., Silva Caliman Monteiro N., Araújo Rocha A., Coutinho R., Dias de Almeida Fernandes L., Nonato Damasceno R. & Caetano dos Santos L., 2023. Carbonate system in the Cabo Frio upwelling. Scientific Reports 13: 5292. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-31479-x. Article.

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