Long-term variability of satellite derived total alkalinity in the southwest Bay of Bengal


  • Computed TA data validated in BoB region.
  • Spatial and temporal variability in TA are mostly due to variability in SSS and SST.
  • TA in BoB region, seasonal and inter-annual pattern over past 17 years.


The seasonal and inter-annual variability of Total Alkalinity (TA) concentration was studied in the Bay of Bengal from 2003 to 2019 by using MODIS-Aqua derived sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) products. The satellite derived TA showed a positive relationship with in-situ TA with (R2 = 0.67, RMSE = ±27.53 μMol/kg, SEE = ±32.16 and uncertainty error = 2287μMol/kg). The seasonal SST, SSS and TA portray the clear seasonal pattern between the seasons without any rapid change increase or decrease in trend observed over the years. In contrast to other seasons, the spring inter-monsoon was observed to have a warm surface water temperature with high salinity and TA. Strong wind and excessive cloud cover during the summer monsoon result in the reduction of ocean surface heat, which favours sea surface cooling and shallow mixed layer depth, resulting in low SST, SSS, and TA compared to the spring inter-monsoon. During fall inter-monsoon, the reversal of East India coastal current directs warm water from north to south and the weak wind that prevails in this region enhances stratification. During winter, low-saline water compensates the static stability loss by thermal inversion from the sea surface resulting in surface cooling with coldest SST, low SSS and TA during this period.

Priyanka K., Shanthi R., Poornima D., Saravanakumar A., Roy R. & Nagamani P. V., 2022. Long-term variability of satellite derived total alkalinity in the southwest Bay of Bengal. Quaternary Science Advances 8: 100066. doi: 10.1016/j.qsa.2022.100066. Article.

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