Divergent gene expression in the gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) exposed to chronic severe hypercapnia indicates dose-dependent increase in intracellular oxidative stress and hypoxia

Highlights
• We investigated the impact of chronic hypercapnia on gene expression in the gills of turbot (Psetta maxima) via RT-qPCR.

• Data indicated enhanced concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the two highest treatment levels.

• Further, dose-dependent modulations of transcriptional adjustments implied different underlying coping mechanisms.

• These modulations seemed to comprise hypoxia-mediated suppressed protein synthesis in the highest tested treatment level.

• We discuss our results within a model of capacity limitation and draw conclusions regarding the condition of the gills.

Abstract
Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide are a common stressor for fish and other aquatic animals. In particular, intensive aquaculture can impose prolonged periods of severe environmental hypercapnia, manifold exceeding CO2 concentrations of natural habitats. In order to cope with this stressor, gills are essential and constitute the primary organ in the acclimatization process. Yet, despite a general understanding of changes in ion regulation, not much is known with regard to other cellular mechanisms. In this study, we apply RT-qPCR to investigate changes in the expression of several genes associated with metabolism, stress and immunity within gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) after an eight-week exposure to different concentrations of CO2 (low = ∼3000 μatm, medium = ∼15,000 μatm and high = ∼25,000 μatm CO2). Histological examination of the gill tissue only found a significant increase of hypertrophied secondary lamella in the highest tested treatment level. gene expression results, on the other hand, implied both, mutual and dose-dependent transcriptional adjustments. Comparable up-regulation of IL-1ß, LMP7 and Grim19 at medium and high hypercapnia indicated an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within gill cells. Simultaneous increase in Akirin and PRDX transcripts at medium CO2 indicated enhanced anti-oxidant activity and regulation of transcription, while reduced mRNA concentrations of COX, EF1α and STAT2 at high CO2 denoted suppressed protein synthesis and reduced metabolic capacity. In addition to upregulated DFAD and ApoE expression, implying compensating repair measures, gills exposed to the highest tested treatment level seemed to operate close to or even beyond their maximum capacity. Thus, fitting the model of capacity limitation, our results provide evidence for accretive intracellular hypoxia and oxidative stress in the gills of turbot, dependent on the level of environmental hypercapnia. Further, genes, such as COX, may be valuable biomarkers when attempting to discriminate between a successful and an overpowered stress response.

Hermann B. T., Wuertz S., Vanselow K. H., Schulz C. & Stiller K. T., 2019. Divergent gene expression in the gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) exposed to chronic severe hypercapnia indicates dose-dependent increase in intracellular oxidative stress and hypoxia. Aquatic Toxicology 206: 72-80. Article.

0 Responses to “Divergent gene expression in the gills of juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima) exposed to chronic severe hypercapnia indicates dose-dependent increase in intracellular oxidative stress and hypoxia”



  1. Leave a Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.




Subscribe to the RSS feed

Powered by FeedBurner

Follow AnneMarin on Twitter

Blog Stats

  • 1,264,984 hits

OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book