Contribution à l’estimation des paramètres du système des carbonates en Mer Mediterranée

The objective of the thesis is to contribute to the estimation of the carbonate system parameters in the Mediterranean Sea, in particular the partial pressure of CO2 in water (pCO2sw), total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon (CT) and pH.The study was initiated by an adequate calculation of the water masses mixing coefficients in the Western and Eastern basins, using data from the Boum and MedSeA cruises in 2008 and 2013, respectively. The analysis of the mixing coefficients, allowed us to study the evolution of water masses in the Mediterranean Sea between the years 2008 and 2013.Subsequently, using data from the 2013 MedSeA cruise, we presented the results of recent measurements of pCO2sw on a wide longitudinal section from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Levantine sub-basin. The results indicated that the Western and Eastern basins were characterized by two different pCO2sw regimes. These regimes were mainly affected by the distinctive physico-chemical properties of each basin. From the direct measurements of pCO2sw we calculated along the track of the MedSeA cruise, the daily CO2 fluxes across the air-sea interface in May 2013. To achieve a more comprehensive analysis, we referred in a consecutive study to the data of the Thresholds and MedSeA cruises. From these data, we provided two equations to estimate in May 2007 and 2013; pCO2sw from satellite data of sea surface temperature, Chlorophyll_a and the chromophoric dissolved organic matter index. Furthermore, we calculated and mapped the air-sea CO2 fluxes in May 2013 across the whole Mediterranean Sea, with a spatial resolution of 4 km.Successively, we established from the MedSeA cruise data, linear regressions to estimate AT and CT from salinity, in each sub-basin of the Mediterranean Sea and for several depths. Later on, we focused on the physico-chemical data in surface waters, compiled from several oceanographic cruises between 1998 and 2013. The equations developed to estimate the AT and CT in surface waters, indicated that it is best to include in these polynomials both salinity and temperature. These polynomials were applied to the climatological fields of salinity and temperature of the World Ocean Atlas, in order to map the spatial and seasonal variability of AT and CT on a 7 years average.Moreover, we estimated from the MedSeA cruise data, the concentrations of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) and the variation of acidification (ΔpH) in the Mediterranean Sea. The results indicated that the Mediterranean Sea is heavily contaminated by CANT, with higher concentrations than those recorded in the Pacific or Indian Ocean. Also, the calculated ΔpH indicated that the Mediterranean Sea is already acidified from the surface to the deep waters. Finally, we presented a model to predict the ΔpH according to theoretical concentrations of CANT. Consequently, we showed that we already reached the tipping point of CANT, for which the acidification will strongly intensify in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, the deep waters of the Western and Eastern basins are very likely to become under saturated in calcite and aragonite by the end of the next century.

Gemayel E., 2015. Contribution a l’estimation des parametres du systeme des carbonates en Mer Mediterranee. PhD thesis, Universite de Perpignan, 240 p. Thesis.


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