Archive for the 'Projects' Category

Ocean acidification projects

PacIOOS has partnered with NOAA’s Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) to provide real-time data from thirteen buoys across the Pacific Ocean. These buoys measure the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere and ocean which in turn provides valuable information to monitor ocean acidification.

PacIOOS. Resource.

Resource type: website

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VOCAB – Ocean Acidification and Biogeochemistry: variability, trends and vulnerability

VOCAB is a 4 year project funded under the Marine Research Programme 2014-2020. This project aims to address some of the gaps in our current knowledge of the vulnerability of selected marine ecosystems in Irish waters to ocean acidification (OA), by exploring some of the complex biogeochemical processes occuring at fine scales in selected ecosystems, and by studying the larger scale biogeochemistry of ocean waters impinging on those ecosystems.

IMBER. Resource.

Resource type: website

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Bocats2 project

Bocats2 is part of a larger project, coordinated by the Marine Research Institute (IIM, CSIC), and financed with 342,430 euros, of which 124,630 correspond to the subproject of the University of Vigo, within the framework of the Generation of Knowledge 2019 program of the Ministry of Science and Innovation. The main objective is to study the millennial and sub millennial variability of the deep currents through the channels that cross the Reykjanes ridge (Bight and Charlie-Gibbs fracture zones), in southwestern Iceland.

Universidade de Vigo, 28 April 2021. Resource.

Resource type: website

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Mediterranean Sea Acidification (MedSeA) in a changing climate

The MedSeA project addresses ecologic and economic impacts from the combined influences of anthropogenic acidification and warming, while accounting for the unique characteristics of this key region.

MEdSea. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Research notes from the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences

This website has been developed to serve as a portal for information on active research on ocean acidification within the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences at the University of Washington including work with partners at the University of Rhode Island, Jamestown Soklallam Tribe, Puget Sound Restoration Fund, and Northeastern University.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences. Resource.

NOAA Ocean Acidification Program

NOAA’s Ocean Acidification Program seeks to better prepare society to respond to changing ocean conditions and resources by expanding understanding of ocean acidification, through interdisciplinary partnerships, nationally and internationally. Ocean acidification is occurring because our ocean is absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, leading to lower pH and greater acidity. This is causing a fundamental change in the chemistry of the ocean from pole to pole.

NOAA OAP. Resource.

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NOAA Ocean Acidification Program projects

The Ocean Acidification Program supports a wide variety of projects both within NOAA and cooperative and academic institutions. These research projects examine specific themes aimed to determine our nation’s vulnerability to ocean acidification.

NOAA OAP. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

PMEL Carbon Program

The PMEL carbon group is working with a number of academic and government partners to conduct large-scale coastal surveys of pCO2 and related water column chemical and hydrographic measurements to determine the spatial scales of CO2 sources and sinks, and causes thereof, along the East, Gulf, and West Coasts of North America.

NOAA. Resource.

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Resource format: webpage

Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE)

FOCE is a technology facilitating studies of the consequences of ocean acidification for marine organisms and communities by enabling the precise control of CO2 enrichment within in situ, partially open, experimental enclosures. Current FOCE systems control experimental CO2 perturbations by real-time monitoring of differences in seawater pH between treatment (i.e. high-CO2) and control (i.e. ambient) seawater within experimental enclosures.

Wikipedia, 3 February 2021. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Ocean Acidification Day of Action

In 2018, The Ocean Foundation launched its Waves of Change campaign to raise awareness of the issue of ocean acidification, culminating with the inaugural Ocean Acidification Day of Action on the 8th January 2019. The 8th of January was chosen as 8.1 is the current pH of the ocean, and our goal is to ensure that the pH of the ocean does not fall below that level. TOF will continue to host Ocean Acidification Day of Action events on the 8th of January each year.

The Ocean Foundation. Resource.

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Resource format: webpage

Building CapacIty in Ocean AcidificaTion MoniToring in the Gulf of GuineA (BIOTTA)

The BIOTTA project aims to develop an integrated and sustainable OA observing system in the GoG and create a platform to facilitate collaboration among and incorporate the expertise of researchers in the GoG region to identify, understand and design solutions to improve research on OA.

PAGO. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

EPOCA – European Project on Ocean Acidification

The European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA) was Europe’s first major research initiative and the first large-scale international research effort devoted to studying the impacts and consequences of ocean acidification. EPOCA was an EU FP7 Integrated Project active during four years, from 2008 to 2012.
The EPOCA consortium brought together more than 160 researchers from 32 institutes in 10 European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) and was coordinated by the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) with the project office based at the Institut de la Mer de Villefranche, France (formerly Observatoire Oceanologique de Villefranche).

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

EPOCA, 1 July 2021. Resource.

BIOACID – Biological Impacts of Ocean ACIDification

As one of the largest national research programmes on ocean acidification, BIOACID has contributed to quantifying the effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms and their habitats, unravelling the mechanisms underlying the observed responses, assessing the potential for evolutionary adaptation, and determining how these responses are modulated by other environmental drivers.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

BIOACID. Resource.

Pristine Seas project

<p>Photograph by Beverly Joubert</p>
Photograph by Manu San Felix

Pristine Seas is an exploration, research, and conservation project that aims to find, survey, and help protect the last healthy, undisturbed places in the ocean. National Geographic Explorer in Residence Enric Sala launched the Pristine Seas project in 2008.

National Geographic. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

European Project on Ocean Acidification (EPOCA)

The European project on ocean acidification (EPOCA) was the first international research effort on ocean acidification. Launched in May 2008 with the overall goal to further our understanding of the biological, ecological, biogeochemical, and societal implications of ocean acidification, it comprised over 160 scientists from 32 institutions in 10 European countries. EPOCA was partly funded by the European Commission (EC, EUR 6.5 million for a total budget of EUR 16 million) and was launched in May 2008 for four years.

European Commission, CORDIS, 30 April 2012. Resource.

Resource type: website

Resource format: webpage

Corals – witnesses to the climate emergency

They are the archives of the oceans. Corals are a great indicator of how much human activities affect our oceans. Funded by the Franco-German fellowship program “Make Our Planet Great Again,” researchers in the U Bremen Research Alliance are studying the extent of global warming in tropical waters.

The forearm-thick whitish drill core held by Dr. Henry Wu of the Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) has come a long way. It originates from a stony coral from the coastal region off Rotuma, an island in the Republic of Fiji, more than 15,000 kilometers from Bremen. The oldest corals being examined by the paleo-climatologist are more than 100,000 years old. In the course of their lives, they have accumulated a vast amount of information.

Corals grow on average a few millimeters per year. They thrive best in clean water and live up to 50 meters below the surface of the sea, where sunrays can still reach them. Just like the growth rings of trees, the micro samples from their calcareous skeleton tell of changing environmental conditions: temperature fluctuations, the amount of rainfall, ocean acidification, and salinity – and they do so with month-to-month precision.

Wu is using these archives of the ocean within the context of his five-year research project. “Climate has always been changing naturally. We want to know: How profound were these changes? What impact has industrialization had since the beginning of the 19th century?” says the researcher. “If we know the past, we can better predict the future.”

Continue reading ‘Corals – witnesses to the climate emergency’

SEA MATE Program reducing acid in oceans, CO2 in the atmosphere

A team of researchers called SEA MATE, led by Stony Brook University professor Matthew Eisaman, is using electricity to remove acid from the ocean while also taking carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Continually increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere have already led to changes in the climate as well as the acidification of the oceans. This increased acidity of the oceans is analogous to a slow motion “spill” of acid, so just as oil spills need to be cleaned up, so do these acid spills.

Eisaman m
Matthew Eisaman, professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering.

The approach of SEA MATE (Safe Elevation of Alkalinity for the Mitigation of Acidification Through Electrochemistry) uses carbon-free electricity and electrochemistry to effectively pump this excess acid out of the ocean and then sells the acid for useful purposes. This acid removal restores the ocean chemistry such that the remaining ions in the ocean react with atmospheric carbon dioxide, safely locking it up for 10,000 – 200,000 years as oceanic bicarbonate. The net effect of SEA MATE is the reversal of ocean acidification along with the net removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Early deployments will likely partner with existing marine industries such as seawater desalination, aquaculture, maritime transport, and offshore wind. As an example, performing the SEA MATE process on the waste effluent from desalination plants would provide value to these plants by reducing their environmental impact, while also mitigating ocean acidification and decreasing the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide.

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UN Ocean Decade endorses several AOML collaborative initiatives

In 2017, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the time frame of 2021-2030 as the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, also known as the “Ocean Decade,” to address the degradation of the ocean and encourage innovative science initiatives to better understand and ultimately reverse its declining health. 

Several collaborative initiatives featuring work by scientists at NOAA’s Atlantic Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) have recently been endorsed in the first Ocean Decade Actions announcement, made by the United Nations Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO in 2021. 

Scientists at AOML are collaborating with national and international partners and stakeholders to carry out research that supports the vision of the UN Ocean Decade through initiatives such as the Observing Air-Sea Interactions Strategy (OASIS), the Ocean Biomolecular Observing Network (OBON), the Global Ocean Biogeochemistry Array (GO-BGC), and the Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability (OARS) program.

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Sculpture and new technologies in scientific educational outreach: 3D foraminiferal models as a referent of ocean acidification and climate change

The Foraminifera Project is a collaboration between researchers of the Faculty of Fine Arts and the Faculty of Geological Sciences at the Complutense University (UCM, Madrid, Spain). The work, based on scientific dissemination through art, is framed in the theme “Climate change and Ocean Acidification” as part of the course “Art, Science and Nature” of the Master’s Degree in Research in Art and Creation (Faculty of Fine Arts, UCM). The team used recent sediment samples from Indian Ocean and Red Sea that contained healthy and unhealthy foraminifera specimens to create 3D specimen models. These models were made using traditional sculpture techniques, photogrammetry, and 3D printing to show different states of foraminifera dissolution and corrosion from ocean acidification. The end result of this project resulted in nine interactive pieces which were part of the exhibition “Drift & Migrate” open to the public during the month of November 2019 in the exhibition hall of the Faculty of Fine Arts (UCM). The 3D models of foraminifera were displayed with educational graphics and blind-accesible explanatory signage (Braille) to share the scientific facts of foraminifera and their role in the ocean ecosystem. The main objective of the collaboration is to raise awareness of anthropogenic effects on foraminifera and the marine ecosystems in general and to expand research opportunities between the arts and sciences at the university.

Continue reading ‘Sculpture and new technologies in scientific educational outreach: 3D foraminiferal models as a referent of ocean acidification and climate change’

Fish in a changing climate – can cod cope?

Cod is a keystone species in marine ecosystems. It shapes the conditions for a large number of other species in the sea and is also of great importance both economically and culturally. However, the Swedish Atlantic cod stocks are on the verge of collapse with serious population declines observed in the Baltic Sea and on the Swedish west coast. Will the already weakened stocks meet another challenge; climate change?

Cod on underwater meadow
Cod swimming through seagrass meadow. Photo. Diana Hammar Perry

Research based on the latest climate models shows that the temperature will rise and lead to local heat waves. Ocean acidification will increase, and salinity will reduce in the Baltic Sea and part of the west coast. Together, these climate effects will dramatically alter the marine environment around Sweden.

Climate effects cause physiological stress

Each of these changes can cause physiological stress in marine organisms. In order to better understand the anticipated fate of cod in a changing climate, this project aims to investigate how Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from coastal populations in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea respond to the cumulative effects of climate change factors such as reduced salinity (freshening), reduced pH (ocean acidification) and increased temperature (warming events).

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