Over the last few decades, a large number of pH sensitive materials with new compositions and structures have been proposed. Solid state sensors based on organic, inorganic and composite materials are actively investigated, with an increasing interest in the performance offered by nano-scale materials. Our review provides a thorough, up-to-date knowledge of a wide range of pH measurement methods and related sensing materials, firstly by introducing well established materials and methods for pH sensing and then, by covering recent developments in inorganic, organic and nano-engineered devices. The main sensor parameters, including sensitivity, stability, response time and testing conditions are reported. Given the importance of pH sensing in environmental applications, in particular seawater monitoring, sensors tested in seawater are highlighted and discussed.
Avolio R., Grozdanov A., Avella M., Barton J., Cocca M., De Falco F., Dimitrov A. T., Errico M. E., Fanjul-Bolado P., Gentile G., Paunovic P., Ribotti A. & Magni P., in press. Review of pH sensing materials from macro- to nano-scale: recent developments and examples of seawater applications. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. Article (subcription required).