Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on marine ecosystem and associated fishes

Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at the ocean surface are in approximate equilibrium with the atmosphere. Consequently, the amount of CO2 dissolved in oceans increases with increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Through ocean acidification, increase uptake of CO2 at the ocean surface lowers the ocean pH level. The availability of dissolved carbonate and bicarbonate primarily caused by CO2 uptake from the atmosphere also changes. Periodically or permanently elevated CO2 concentrations can become a general stress factor in aquatic environments. Excess CO2 can affect the surrounding ocean life, i.e., disturbing growth performance, reproduction, changes in skeletal and otolith development, and fish behavior. Studies on the effects of ocean acidification on fish species have recently received attention. This condition can lead to severe problems if atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise. Therefore, management intervention and decisive action on excessive CO2 emission are necessary to overcome this situation. The information discussed in this review can be utilized as reference in understanding the effects of ocean acidification on marine ecosystem and associated fishes.

Noor N. M. & Das S. K., in press. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide on marine ecosystem and associated fishes. Thalassas: An International Journal of Marine Sciences. Article (subscription required).

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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