We studied changes in sea water pH, temperature and salinity with focus on two depth layers, along the Gulf of Finland (the Baltic Sea) using long-term monitoring data from 1979 to 2015. Data from the most frequently sampled monitoring stations between western and eastern Gulf of Finland were used. The main result of the study reveals that pH has decreased both in surface and deep-water in the western Gulf of Finland with values ranging between −0.005 and −0.008 units year−1. We also demonstrate a rise in temperature (~2 °C) and decrease in salinity (~−0.7 g kg−1) at several stations over the last 36 years. In general, the changes are shown to be more pronounced in the western part of the gulf. This paper also stresses the importance of improving the sampling frequency and quality of monitoring measurements.
Almén A.-K., Glippa O., Pettersson H., Alenius P. & Engström-Öst J., 2017. Changes in wintertime pH and hydrography of the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea) with focus on depth layers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 189:147. Article (subscription required).