Impacts of climate change, including acidification, on marine ecosystems and fisheries

Marine ecosystems have always been affected by changes in climate at timescales from decades to millions of years. Since the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century the increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) has caused an accelerating rise in global temperature whose effects on marine biota can be detected at individual, population and ecosystem level. The rising level of CO2 and consequent acidification of the oceans is having an impact on metabolism and calcification in many organisms, with damage to vulnerable ecosystems, such as coral reefs, already occurring. The pH of the oceans is already lower now than it has been for the past 600,000 years.

Brander K. & Havenhand J., 2012. Impacts of climate change, including acidification, on marine ecosystems and fisheries. In: Reckermann M., Brander K., MacKenzie B. R. & Omstedt A. (Eds.), Climate impacts on the Baltic Sea: from science to policy, pp 129-160. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Book chapter (subscription required).


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