Future research directions and gaps in our knowledge

In this final chapter, we explore the current gaps in our understanding of ocean acidification and increased sea surface temperature on sponges and highlight some future research directions to address these gaps. We particularly focus on the geographic spread of the currently available studies, the mechanisms of acclimation and the potential for long-term adaptation. We also highlight the need for more multiple stressor impact studies and a better understanding of the ecosystem consequences of changing sponge abundance. With this information, we will be able to better predict future impacts of environmental change on sponges.

Bell J. J. & Carballo J. L., 2017. Future research directions and gaps in our knowledge. In: Carballo J. L. & Bell J. J. (Eds.), Climate Change, Ocean Acidification and Sponges, pp 447-452. Springer, Cham. Chapter (restricted access).


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