This appendix provides the supporting material for estimating the pH of seawater that may be required for the climate change damage estimates discussed (…). It covers two approached consistent with the simple earth system model (…). The first approach estimates globally averaged pH directly from globally averaged atmospheric CO2. The second approach estimated pH from surface temperature and the ocean carbon concentrations and may be useful for estimating regional changes in pH or global changes in pH in SC-CO2 models with interactive ocean carbon modules. In both approaches, regression relationships are derived from outputs from a full ocean carbonate chemistry code run for typical ranges of ocean seawater temperatures, dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and chemical compositions. This allows applying the standard set of equations to both global and regional estimated of pH.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2017. Empirical equation for estimating ocean acidification. In National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (Ed.), Valuing climate changes: updating estimation of the social cost of carbon dioxide. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, pp. 368-375. Book chapter.