xFOCE: long-term impacts of ocean acidification in situ

Laboratory studies have considerably advanced the understanding of the tolerance or response of individual species to ocean acidification in the past 15 years. This approach, however, provided little information concerning the response of natural assemblages of interacting species, in which the direct impacts of ocean acidification as well as their cascading indirect consequences (e.g. changes in the intensity of interaction strengthsamong predators or competitors) may be evident. Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment experiments (FOCE; Kirkwood et al., 2011) are a key tool to investigate the long-term (several months to more than one year) response of natural communities to ocean acidification. This technology provides precise control of pH within in situ, partially open, experimental enclosures (e.g., Kline et al., 2012).

Gattuso J.-P. & Kirkwood W., 2014. xFOCE: long-term impacts of ocean acidification in situ. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin 23(1):15-16. Article (subscription required).

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