Coastal zones are highly populated and among the world’s most diverse and productive environments. Coastal areas include complex ecosystems such as coral reefs, mangrove, salt marshes, seagrasses, etc. Global climate change accelerated by human activities affects the physical, biological, and biogeochemical characteristics of the coastal regions. Consequently the ecological structure, their functions, and the goods and services of the coastal regions are being modified. The ecosystem resilience will be greatly reduced through human impacts as well as rising sea levels, increasing sea temperatures, and other climate ocean-related changes, including prevailing wave activity and storm waves and surges. Sea level rise and increased seawater temperatures are projected to accelerate beach erosion and cause degradation of natural coastal defences such as mangroves and coral reefs resulting in negative effect on the socio-economic aspects of coastal population. Therefore, integrated approaches are essential at various levels to manage the climate change impact on coastal region.
Ayyam V., Palanivel S. & Chandrakasan C., 2019. Climate change and its impact on the coastal region. In: Coastal Ecosystems of the Tropics – Adaptive Management, pp. 219-245. Singapore: Springer. Chapter (subscription required).