pH electrodes based on iridium oxide films for marine monitoring


• The preparation method of the IROFs pH electrode is systematically introduced.

• The IROFs pH electrode methods are compared with the traditional pH value analysis and monitoring methods in the marine environment.

• Innovative trend of pH analysis and monitoring is expanded in marine organization, seawater and sediment pore water.


The pH is an important parameter that affects the growth and development of marine organisms, environmental changes, and industrial and agricultural production processes. Nowadays, important trends in pH detection and analysis are higher stability, adaptation to extreme environmental conditions, miniaturization, portability, and digital intelligence. Several studies have focused on the application of the iridium oxide film (IROF) pH electrodes in water quality monitoring and physiological analysis. The central aim of this work was to review the preparation techniques of the IROF pH electrodes and to expand their application in the field of marine monitoring. The studied methods include electrochemical deposition, electrochemical growth, sputtering deposition, heat treatment, and novel preparation methods. The IROF pH electrodes prepared via these methods are more sensitive, have a wider pH measurement ranges, and can be miniaturized further than traditional glass and pH photometer. Hence, in environmental analysis, combining IROF pH electrodes with wireless technology for the physiological and biochemical analysis of marine organisms, seawater, and sediment pore water is an important development tendency.

Zhou Z., Li J., Pan D., Wei H., Wang C., Pan F., Xia J. & Ma S., in press. pH electrodes based on iridium oxide films for marine monitoring. Trends in Environmental Analytical Chemistry. Article (subscription required).

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