Use of high-frequency noninvasive electromagnetic biosensors to detect ocean acidification effects on shellfish behavior

Although ocean acidification studies related to marine animal behavior have increased in recent years, the behavioral effects of ocean acidification on shellfish are relatively understudied, even though marine shellfish exhibit a wealth of behaviors that can modify organismal interactions and biological community functioning. Furthermore, detecting acute behavioral changes may provide a biological indicator of ecosystem stress and/or an early warning system for aquaculture operations. This article highlights a new and emerging technology—high-frequency noninvasive (HFNI) electromagnetic biosensors—that can be used to document acute and long-term effects of elevated CO2 on the valve-gaping behavior of marine bivalves. An overview of the technology is presented, and the current and potential uses of these biosensors in ocean acidification research are highlighted, along with current limitations and next steps. Although a handful of studies have used these biosensors to test for effects of acidification on bivalve valve-gaping behavior, their potential for testing critical and novel hypotheses regarding ocean acidification effects in a broader range of shellfish taxa is currently underused. Ultimately, this article provides a basis for expanding ocean acidification research on shellfish behavior through the use of HFNI electromagnetic biosensors.

Clements J. C. & Comeau L. A., 2019. Use of high-frequency noninvasive electromagnetic biosensors to detect ocean acidification effects on shellfish behavior. Journal of Shellfish Research 38 (3): 811-818. Article (subscription required).

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