Ocean acidification stimulates mass development of toxic algae

Field experiment off the Canary Islands

Field experiment off the Canary Islands (Photo: Ulf Riebesell/ GEOMAR)

If carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and thereby in the ocean continue to rise, this could favour the mass development of toxic algae, with far-reaching consequences for the pelagic food web. This was discovered during a long-term experiment off the Canary Islands conducted by an international group of scientists with the participation of the Alfred Wegener Institute. The results have now been published in the international journal Nature Climate Change.

Global warming is undoubtedly the best-known consequence of rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. But it is not the only one. The higher the carbon dioxide (CO2) level in the atmosphere, the more CO2 is taken up by the ocean. In seawater the gas triggers chemical reactions that increase seawater acidity. This process, known as ocean acidification, affects marine life. The consequences for marine ecosystems can be quite complex and research is still in the process of understanding the full scope of it.

In a two-month field experiment off the Canary Islands, an international group of scientists led by the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel has uncovered a possible consequence of ocean acidification that could massively affect the marine food web. As the team has now published in the international journal Nature Climate Change, the toxic alga Vicicitus globosus strongly increased its abundance at carbon dioxide concentrations above 600 ppm (parts per million) and went into mass development above 800 ppm.

“In our near-natural test environments these algal blooms had a strong negative effect on the rest of the plankton community, particularly the diverse groups of zooplankton. These tiny animals are extremely important for the marine food web. The collapse of the food chain also influenced other important processes driven by the marine biota, such as the carbon transport to depth,” explains Prof. Dr. Ulf Riebesell, Professor of Biological Oceanography at GEOMAR and first author of the study.

For the experiment, the team had deployed nine sea-going mesocosms off the Canary Islands. Each consists of a flotation frame at the sea surface, which holds a 15-metre-long plastic tube vertically in the water. The tubes contain 35 cubic meters of seawater with the natural plankton community enclosed. Separated from the surrounding sea, the enclosed water column was enriched in CO2 to levels expected for different CO2 emission scenarios. The researchers then closely monitored the development of the plankton community for the following 57 days.

The various groups of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the mesocosms showed a wide range of responses to the elevated carbon dioxide and increased acidity. The most striking response, however, was the rapid growth of the toxic alga Vicicitus globosus at CO2 concentrations above 600 ppm. “This CO2 level could be reached in the next three to four decades if our carbon dioxide emissions are not declining rapidly,” stresses Ulf Riebesell.

You’ll find further information on geomar.de/en

Alfred-Wegener Institut, 19 November 2018. Article.

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