Projected ocean acidification by 2100

The maps show projected ocean acidification and related impacts on corals by 2020, 2060 and 2100: from better (blue) to worse (orange) conditions for coral skeletal growth.

Additional information

This map covers the world.

Aragonite is a form of calcium carbonate used by organisms such as corals, molluscs and some plankton species to build up skeletal structures and shells. Aragonite saturation levels go down as the ocean water acidifies. A value below 100% indicates undersaturation, meaning that aragonite structures would dissolve. Lowering values imply that it becomes increasingly difficult for the mentioned organisms to survive and grow.

Publish date:
17 Dec 2010

Last upload:
17 Dec 2010

Temporal coverage:
1981-2000, 2060, 2081-2098

Geographical coverage:

EFTA4, EU15, EU25, EU27, Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Macedonia, the former Yugoslavian Republic of, Moldova, Republic of, Monaco, Montenegro, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine


% change

EEA standard re-use policy: unless otherwise indicated, re-use of content on the EEA website for commercial or non-commercial purposes is permitted free of charge, provided that the source is acknowledged ( Copyright holder: European Environment Agency.


Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

17 December 2010, European Environment Agency. Map.

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