Gaining a clearer understanding of ocean acidification in the Northeast

Challenging conditions for familiar species like lobsters and scallops loom by mid-century

Two fishermen in Maine are sorting the fresh lobsters that they caught in to separate bins by size just before they sell them at market.

Familiar organisms like lobsters could be affected by changing ocean conditions in the Northeast in the coming decades (Adobe Stock).

By mid-century, the Northeast is expected to experience significant changes in climate, on land and in the region’s waters. Leaders from across New England and the Canadian Maritime Provinces teamed up with experts to compile a report containing the most complete and up-to-date information on the Gulf of Maine, that is also filled with actionable solutions to increase resiliency in the coming decades – all with hopes of inspiring quick action. Details can be found in he Gulf of Maine 2050 Climate Outlook and Action report.

UConn Assistant Professor in the Department of Marine Sciences Samantha Siedlecki is a co-author on the report, which presents a synthesis of research relevant to the region, including sea level rise, temperature change, and Siedlecki’s focus — ocean acidification. The paper detailing Ocean Acidification projections featured in the report was published on May 12th in Elementa.

“For the report, the motivation was to include ocean acidification and focus on 2050, since 2100 feels so far away to most decision makers,” Siedlecki says. “In the paper, we discuss three components of understanding OA in the region. First, we did a historical analysis where we review research done up to this point and we provide some new analysis as well. Then we review what we know about the health of the ecosystem and what we know about the biological sensitivity of the ecosystems that reside in the Gulf of Maine. Finally, we discuss future projected conditions and what that means for the ecosystem moving forward.”

“Prior work has identified trends in one measure of ocean acidification – surface saturation state,” Siedlecki says. “Saturation state represents an energetic threshold for organisms that make shells. When you see shells on the beach, an organism has generated that out of the same material we commonly know as antacids it’s calcium carbonate. The ocean becomes more acidic as we add atmospheric CO2 and that increase in acidity favors dissolution of calcium carbonate.”

Siedlecki says despite the predictability, some trends in ocean acidification seen in the Gulf of Maine are unlike those seen elsewhere.

“That has been tied to the warming and the processes responsible for that warming, including increased presence of Gulf Stream water in the area, since about 2005. Warming and ocean acidification are very much connected in terms of what’s going on in the area.”

One of the paper’s main conclusions is that the influx of Gulf Stream water and possible decrease of Labrador seawater in the region is having a masking effect on the acidification process for now. However, by mid-century, the models project that the entire Gulf of Maine region will experience persistent sub-optimal conditions for most of the year, says Siedlecki.

Elaina Hancock, University of Connecticut (UCONN), 3 June 2021. Press release.

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