Posts Tagged 'NOTSTAT'

Report on the ocean acidification crisis in Massachusetts

Since the industrial revolution, the world’s oceans have become increasingly acidic. The main drivers of ocean acidification in Massachusetts are (1) global increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from anthropogenic emissions, and (2) local nutrient pollution leading to the eutrophication of coastal waters.

Many marine species that evolved under less acidic conditions are threatened by ocean acidification, including some that are critical to the Massachusetts economy. Species that are both economically important and vulnerable to acidification include mollusks such as the sea scallop and eastern oyster.

Massachusetts will be disproportionately affected by ocean acidification due to the relative importance of its coastal economies and environments.

Continue reading ‘Report on the ocean acidification crisis in Massachusetts’

Status and trends of Arctic Ocean environmental change and its impacts on marine biogeochemistry: findings from the ArCS project

Ocean observation research theme under ArCS project, “Theme 4: Observational research on Arctic Ocean environmental changes”, aimed to elucidate the status and trends of ongoing Arctic Ocean environmental changes and to evaluate their impacts on Arctic marine ecosystem and the global climate system. For these purposes, we conducted field observations, mooring observations, laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and international collaborative research focusing on the Pacific Arctic Region (PAR) and from Pan-Arctic point of views. As a result, we have published several scientific studies on environmental changes and their impact on the climate and ecosystem. In this manuscript, we compiled these results with some concluding remarks. We found physical environmental changes of water cycle, sea-ice and ocean conditions, heat transport, and ocean mixing in the Arctic Ocean and surrounding areas. We also examined chemical properties, carbon, cycle, and ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean. In addition, new findings regarding impacts of sea-ice reduction to primary productivities were published. For public outreach of Arctic research, we were able to develop an educational tool (a board game named “The Arctic”) in collaboration with Themes 6 and 7.

Continue reading ‘Status and trends of Arctic Ocean environmental change and its impacts on marine biogeochemistry: findings from the ArCS project’

Ocean acidification and its effects on marine wildlife

Ocean acidification is the process in which carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere absorbs in water to produce calcium carbonate. With the rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and the ocean being a carbon sink, ocean acidification remains a threat to the various forms of marine wildlife, specifically, the shark population. The effects of ocean acidification have the potential to damage shark physiology by altering their blood chemistry and overall neurology. This could result in the imbalance of the ocean’s natural order and food chain due to the distress from these apex predators. When analyzing the experiments that have been done to test the effects of acidity on sharks, the results showed that there was a significant decrease in oxygen to the brain. These experiments also revealed the dangers that ocean acidification could have on marine species with exoskeletons. Exoskeletons are able to easily dissolve when exposed to large amounts of calcium carbonate -the chemical made from the mixture of CO2 and seawater. – Some important species that possess exoskeleton are coral reefs. Coral reefs are known to be the habitats for an abundance of species, including sharks. When it comes to determining who is responsible for the rise of ocean acidification, it has been declared a global problem that requires a mass amount of global effort to reverse.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification and its effects on marine wildlife’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book