Posts Tagged 'multiple factors'



Differential photosynthetic response of a green tide alga Ulva linza to ultraviolet radiation, under short‐ and long‐term ocean acidification regimes

Both ocean acidification (OA) and solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can bring about changes in macroalgal physiological performance. However, macroalgal responses to UV radiation when acclimatized to OA under different time scales are rare. Here, we investigate the response of Ulva linza, a green tide alga, to UV radiation in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) or PAB (PAR+UVA+UVB) radiation. Radiation exposures were assessed following long‐term (from spore to adult stage, 1 month) and short‐term (adult stage, 1 week) OA treatments. Results showed that increased CO2 decreased the damage rate (k) and repair rate (r) of thalli grown under short‐term OA conditions with PAB treatment, the ratio of r:k was not altered. Following long‐term OA conditions, r was not affected, although k was increased in thalli following PAB treatment, resulting in a reduced ratio of r:k. The relative level of UV inhibition increased and UV‐absorbing compounds decreased when algae were cultured under long‐term OA conditions. The recovery rate of thalli was enhanced when grown under long‐term OA after UV radiation treatment. These results show that blooming algae may be more sensitive to UV radiation in marine environments, but it can develop effective mechanisms to offset the negative effects, reflecting acclimation to long‐term OA conditions.

Continue reading ‘Differential photosynthetic response of a green tide alga Ulva linza to ultraviolet radiation, under short‐ and long‐term ocean acidification regimes’

Uncovering mechanisms of global ocean change effects on the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) through metabolomics analysis

The Dungeness crab is an economically and ecologically important species distributed along the North American Pacific coast. To predict how Dungeness crab may physiologically respond to future global ocean change on a molecular level, we performed untargeted metabolomic approaches on individual Dungeness crab juveniles reared in treatments that mimicked current and projected future pH and dissolved oxygen conditions. We found 94 metabolites and 127 lipids responded in a condition-specific manner, with a greater number of known compounds more strongly responding to low oxygen than low pH exposure. Pathway analysis of these compounds revealed that juveniles may respond to low oxygen through evolutionarily conserved processes including downregulating glutathione biosynthesis and upregulating glycogen storage, and may respond to low pH by increasing ATP production. Most interestingly, we found that the response of juveniles to combined low pH and low oxygen exposure was most similar to the low oxygen exposure response, indicating low oxygen may drive the physiology of juvenile crabs more than pH. Our study elucidates metabolic dynamics that expand our overall understanding of how the species might respond to future ocean conditions and provides a comprehensive dataset that could be used in future ocean acidification response studies.

Continue reading ‘Uncovering mechanisms of global ocean change effects on the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) through metabolomics analysis’

Hsp70 knockdown reduced the tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae to low pH and salinity

Highlights

• Injection of the white-leg shrimp with Hsp70 dsRNA eliminated Hsp70 mRNA and protein in post-larvae but had no apparent effect on survival.

• However, the survival of post larvae lacking Hsp70, as compared to those containing the heat shock protein, was reduced more than two-fold 48 h after exposure to low salinity and pH, strongly indicating that Hsp70 is required for protection against these abiotic stressors.

• This is the first time to our knowledge that RNAi has been used to demonstrate a role for Hsp70 in protecting P. vannamei post larvae against salinity and pH stress, an effect undoubtedly due to the importance Hsp70 assumes in maintaining protein homeostasis within cells.

Abstract

To better understand stress tolerance of the White leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to assess the role of the molecular chaperone, Hsp70 in protecting post larvae against low pH and salinity. As revealed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoprobing of western blots, injection of L. vannamei post larvae with Hsp70 and Hsc70 dsRNA reduced Hsp70 but had no apparent effect on survival. However, the survival of post larvae lacking Hsp70, as compared to those containing the heat shock protein, was reduced more than two-fold 48 h after exposure to low salinity and pH, strongly indicating that Hsp70 is required for protection against these abiotic stressors. This is the first time to our knowledge that RNAi has been used to demonstrate a role for Hsp70 in protecting L. vannamei post larvae against salinity and pH stress, an effect undoubtedly due to the importance Hsp70 assumes in maintaining protein homeostasis within cells. Information generated in this work provides further understanding of Hsp70 function in the stress response of Penaeid shrimp and will assist in the development of strategies to mitigate abiotic stresses experienced by aquatic invertebrates during aquaculture.

Continue reading ‘Hsp70 knockdown reduced the tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae to low pH and salinity’

De novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression profile of thermally challenged green abalone (Haliotis fulgens: Gastropoda) under acute hypoxia and hypercapnia

Highlights

• Abalone gene expression under warming, hypoxia, and hypercapnia, individually and combined.

• The response reflects enhanced damage control at the expense of energy metabolism.

• Gene networks of gill and muscle conform with different levels of thermal sensitivity.

• Warming combined with hypercapnia and hypoxia enhanced mitochondrial capacity.

Abstract

Transcriptional regulation constitutes a rapid response of marine organisms facing stressful environmental conditions, such as the concomitant exposure to warming, ocean acidification and hypoxia under climate change. In previous studies, we investigated whole-organism physiological patterns and cellular metabolism in gill and muscle of the marine gastropod Haliotis fulgens in response to increasing temperature (18 °C to 32 °C at +3 °C per day) under hypoxia (50% air saturation), hypercapnia (1000 μatm pCO2) and both factors combined. Here, we report investigations of the molecular responses of H. fulgens to temperature and identify mechanisms concomitantly affected by hypoxia and hypercapnia. A de novo transcriptome assembly with subsequent quantitative PCR and correlation network analysis of genes involved in the molecular response were used to unravel the correlations between gene expression patterns under the different experimental conditions. The correlation networks identified a shift from the expression of genes involved in energy metabolism (down-regulated) to the up-regulation of Hsp70 during warming under all experimental conditions in gill and muscle, indicating a strong up-regulation of damage prevention and repair systems at sustained cellular energy production. However, a higher capacity for anaerobic succinate production was evicted in gill, matching with observations from our previous studies indicating succinate accumulation in gill but not in muscle. Additionally, warming under hypoxia and hypercapnia kept mRNA levels of citrate synthase in both tissues unchanged following a similar pattern as muscle enzyme capacity from a previous study, suggesting an emphasis on maintaining rather than down-regulating mitochondrial activity.

Continue reading ‘De novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression profile of thermally challenged green abalone (Haliotis fulgens: Gastropoda) under acute hypoxia and hypercapnia’

Company matters: the presence of other genotypes alters traits and intraspecific selection in an Arctic diatom under climate change

Arctic phytoplankton and their response to future conditions shape one of the most rapidly changing ecosystems on the planet. We tested how much the phenotypic responses of strains from the same Arctic diatom population diverge and whether the physiology and intraspecific composition of multistrain populations differs from expectations based on single strain traits. To this end, we conducted incubation experiments with the diatom Thalassiosira hyalina under present‐day and future temperature and pCO2 treatments. Six fresh isolates from the same Svalbard population were incubated as mono‐ and multistrain cultures. For the first time, we were able to closely follow intraspecific selection within an artificial population using microsatellites and allele‐specific quantitative PCR. Our results showed not only that there is substantial variation in how strains of the same species cope with the tested environments but also that changes in genotype composition, production rates, and cellular quotas in the multistrain cultures are not predictable from monoculture performance. Nevertheless, the physiological responses as well as strain composition of the artificial populations were highly reproducible within each environment. Interestingly, we only detected significant strain sorting in those populations exposed to the future treatment. This study illustrates that the genetic composition of populations can change on very short timescales through selection from the intraspecific standing stock, indicating the potential for rapid population level adaptation to climate change. We further show that individuals adjust their phenotype not only in response to their physicochemical but also to their biological surroundings. Such intraspecific interactions need to be understood in order to realistically predict ecosystem responses to global change.

Continue reading ‘Company matters: the presence of other genotypes alters traits and intraspecific selection in an Arctic diatom under climate change’

Combined effects of acute temperature change and elevated pCO2 on the metabolic rates and hypoxia tolerances of clearnose skate (Rostaraja eglanteria), summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), and thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata)

Understanding how rising temperatures, ocean acidification, and hypoxia affect the performance of coastal fishes is essential to predicting species-specific responses to climate change. Although a population’s habitat influences physiological performance, little work has explicitly examined the multi-stressor responses of species from habitats differing in natural variability. Here, clearnose skate (Rostaraja eglanteria) and summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from mid-Atlantic estuaries, and thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata) from the Gulf of Maine, were acutely exposed to current and projected temperatures (20, 24, or 28 °C; 22 or 30 °C; and 9, 13, or 15 °C, respectively) and acidification conditions (pH 7.8 or 7.4). We tested metabolic rates and hypoxia tolerance using intermittent-flow respirometry. All three species exhibited increases in standard metabolic rate under an 8 °C temperature increase (Q10 of 1.71, 1.07, and 2.56, respectively), although this was most pronounced in the thorny skate. At the lowest test temperature and under the low pH treatment, all three species exhibited significant increases in standard metabolic rate (44–105%; p < 0.05) and decreases in hypoxia tolerance (60–84% increases in critical oxygen pressure; p < 0.05). This study demonstrates the interactive effects of increasing temperature and changing ocean carbonate chemistry are species-specific, the implications of which should be considered within the context of habitat.

Continue reading ‘Combined effects of acute temperature change and elevated pCO2 on the metabolic rates and hypoxia tolerances of clearnose skate (Rostaraja eglanteria), summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus), and thorny skate (Amblyraja radiata)’

Effects of ocean acidification and short-term light/temperature stress on biogenic dimethylated sulfur compounds cycling in the Changjiang River Estuary

Ocean acidification (OA) affects marine primary productivity and community structure. Therefore, OA may influence the biogeochemical cycles of volatile biogenic dimethyl sulfide (DMS), and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and photochemical oxidation product dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). A 23-day shipboard incubation experiment investigated the short-term response of the production and cycling of biogenic sulfur compounds to OA in the Changjiang River Estuary to understand the effects of OA on biogenic sulfur compounds. Phytoplankton abundance and community composition showed a marked difference at three different pH levels at the late stage of the experiment. Significant reductions in chlorophyll a (Chl-a), DMS, particulate DMSP (DMSPp) and dissolved DMSO (DMSOd) concentrations were identified under high CO2 levels. Moreover, minimal changes were observed in the productions of dissolved DMSP (DMSPd) and particulate DMSO (DMSOp) among the treatments. The ratios of DMS, total DMSP (DMSPt) and total DMSO (DMSOt) to Chl-a were not affected by a change in pH. Furthermore, the concentrations of DMS and DMSOd were closely related to the mean bacterial abundance at the three pH levels. Additional short-term (8 h) incubation experiments on the light and temperature effects showed that the influence of pH on the production of dimethylated sulfur compounds also depended on solar radiation and temperature. Under natural and UVB light, DMS photodegradation rates increased by 1.6 to 4.2 times at low pH levels. Thus, OA may lead to decreasing DMS concentrations in surface seawater. Light and temperature conditions also play important roles in the production and cycling of biogenic sulfur compounds.

Continue reading ‘Effects of ocean acidification and short-term light/temperature stress on biogenic dimethylated sulfur compounds cycling in the Changjiang River Estuary’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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