Posts Tagged 'Caspian Sea'

Hydrochemistry and nutrient distribution in southern deep-water basin of the Caspian Sea

Highlights

• Hydrochemical studies in southern Caspian Sea in late-winter 2014 were performed.
• Expansion of the hypoxic condition layer up to horizon level of 300–400 m was observed.
• The accumulation of phosphate, silicate and dissolved inorganic carbon in the bottom layers was observed.
• Nitrate intermediate maximum depth of 300 m was recorded.

Abstract

In this work, the results of hydrochemical studies aboard the R/V Iran Behshahr in southern Caspian Sea in late-winter 2014 were presented. Salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations in water column of Neka-Amir Kabir oil platform section in the southern Caspian Sea were measured to study the status of hydrochemistry of this area. Results showed that the hypoxia continues to intensify in the deep-water basin of the South Caspian Sea. Near-zero concentration of dissolved oxygen and accumulation of phosphate, silicate and total dissolved inorganic carbon in near-bottom layers in the study area showed that vertical winter mixing of water column did not reach the near-bottom layers at the time of this survey. Nitrate showed its maximum concentration at the intermediate maximum depth of 300 m.

Continue reading ‘Hydrochemistry and nutrient distribution in southern deep-water basin of the Caspian Sea’

Ex situ study of Enterococcus faecalis survival in the recreational waters of the southern coast of the Caspian Sea

Background and Objectives: The US Environmental Protection Agency has suggested faecal enterococci as the primary bacterial indicators. Of more importance is their direct correlation with swimmer-associated gastroenteritis in recreation water quality monitoring. In contrast to other seawater bodies with 3.5% salinity, the recreational waters in the southern coast of the Caspian Sea possess its own salinity (about 1% w/v) and thus require further investigations to determine the capacity of Enterococcus faecalis as the sole primary microbial index in this unique aquatic environment.

Materials and Methods: The survey of the presence and survival of E. faecalis as a microbial index in the recreational waters of the southern Caspian Sea was carried out using a microcosm as an experimental model. The concentration of E. faecalis cells in samples of seawater were estimated by a standard membrane filtration method using m-Enterococcus agar as the selective culture medium. As the current standard culture-based methods are not reliable enough for the detection of non-growing, damaged and under-tension bacteria, PCR was used to identify the possible VBNC form of the bacterium after disappearance of the culturable cells.

Results and Conclusion: A continuous decline in the number of culturable E. faecalis cells resulted in apparent elimination of the bacteria from seawater in a defined period. Detection of intact DNA was possible in the following 60 days. The salinity of about 1% and the self-purification properties of the Caspian Sea make the conditions feasible for the use of this microorganism as a measure of water quality throughout the region. The results confirmed the presence of damaged bacterial cells, namely VBNC forms, indicating the necessity of examining of the sea water samples by using molecular approaches or repair procedures.

Continue reading ‘Ex situ study of Enterococcus faecalis survival in the recreational waters of the southern coast of the Caspian Sea’


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