Posts Tagged 'BRcommunities'

The stable microbiome of inter and sub-tidal anemone species under increasing pCO2

Increasing levels of pCO2 within the oceans will select for resistant organisms such as anemones, which may thrive under ocean acidification conditions. However, increasing pCO2 may alter the bacterial community of marine organisms, significantly affecting the health status of the host. A pH gradient associated with a natural volcanic vent system within Levante Bay, Vulcano Island, Italy, was used to test the effects of ocean acidification on the bacterial community of two anemone species in situ, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina using 16 S rDNA pyrosequencing. Results showed the bacterial community of the two anemone species differed significantly from each other primarily because of differences in the Gammaproteobacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria abundances. The bacterial communities did not differ within species among sites with decreasing pH except for A. viridis at the vent site (pH = 6.05). In addition to low pH, the vent site contains trace metals and sulfide that may have influenced the bacteria community of A. viridis. The stability of the bacterial community from pH 8.1 to pH 7.4, coupled with previous experiments showing the lack of, or beneficial changes within anemones living under low pH conditions indicates that A. viridis and A. equina will be winners under future ocean acidification scenarios.

Continue reading ‘The stable microbiome of inter and sub-tidal anemone species under increasing pCO2’

Responses of the diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis to increasing sea water CO2 concentrations and the effect of turbulence

Emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), are lead to increasing global and surface ocean temperatures. At the same time, as CO2 equilibrates between the atmosphere and the surface ocean, it decreases sea water pH. As a result, the changes in physical and chemical properties of the ocean can affect marine primary producers in various ways. A number of researches have addressed the effects of ocean acidification on marine phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton responses to combined effects are still poorly understood. Here, we chose monospecific cultures of the cosmopolitan chain forming diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis (A. glacialis), grown semi-continuously under controlled laboratory conditions, to assess the combined effect of ocean acidification (~ 420 to 2800 µatm) and turbulence. At current CO2 levels, growth rates of A. glacialis increased under enhanced turbulence. This was the result of an optimum shift towards lower CO2 concentrations and accompanied by a prevalence of longer chains (more than 6 cells). For increasing CO2 levels (up to ~ 2800 µatm) and decreased pH values, enhanced turbulence significantly decreased growth rates, chain length and organic matter production of A. glacialis. Thus, our study suggests that, even though A. glacialis benefited from enhanced turbulence, at present carbon dioxide concentration, at higher CO2 levels, turbulence magnified the stress by acidification. If in the future, the ocean surface layer will be more frequently exposed to storm and wind events, then phytoplankton communities might be more sensitive to lower pH, with potential consequences for community composition and productivity.

Continue reading ‘Responses of the diatom Asterionellopsis glacialis to increasing sea water CO2 concentrations and the effect of turbulence’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book