Call for manuscripts: special issue on ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation

Manuscript submission deadline: 31 October 2019

The Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) is organizing a Special Issue entitled “Ocean Warming, Acidification and Deoxygenation” in the online journal, Climate (ISSN 2225-1154, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/climate).

Oceanic warming, acidification and deoxygenation are beginning to change the ocean environment in ways that are going to impact the ability of the oceans to support the many services on which society depends, e.g., transportation, food and recreation, to name but a few. It is critical that these changes be well documented and understood. How do they vary regionally and temporally? What are the correlations between them and with important forcing factors, both natural and anthropogenic? How can this information best be presented in ways that will be useful to policy makers and managers?

For further reading, please follow the link to the Special Issue
https://www.mdpi.com/journal/climate/special_issues/ocean_warming

If this topic is of interest, you may send your manuscript now or up until the deadline (31 October 2019). Submitted papers should not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. We also encourage authors to send a short abstract or tentative title to the Editorial Office in advance (climate@mdpi.com or suzanne.ji@mdpi.com).

Climate is fully open access. Open access (unlimited and free access by readers) increases publicity and promotes more frequent citations, as indicated by several studies.

For details of the submission process, please see the instructions for authors, http://www.mdpi.com/journal/climate/instructions

To submit to the journal click
https://susy.mdpi.com/user/manuscripts/upload/2a03104838891df6e93ee7766d2070ce?form%5Bjournal_id%5D=143&form%5Bspecial_issue_id%5D=23808

Continue reading ‘Call for manuscripts: special issue on ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation’

Predicting which species succeed in climate-forced polar seas

Understanding the mechanisms which determine the capacity of any species to adapt to changing environmental conditions is one of the foremost requirements in accurately predicting which populations, species and clades are likely to survive ongoing, rapid climate change. The polar oceans are amongst the most rapidly changing environments on Earth with reduced regional sea ice duration and extent, and their fauna’s expected sensitivity to warming and acidification. These changes potentially pose a significant threat to a number of polar fauna. There is, therefore, a critical need to assess the vulnerability of a wide range of species to determine the tipping points or weak links in marine assemblages. Knowledge of the effect of multiple stressors on polar marine fauna has advanced over the last 40 years, but there are still many data gaps. This study applies ecological risk assessment techniques to the increasing knowledge of polar species’ physiological capacities to identify their exposure to climate change and their vulnerability to this exposure. This relatively rapid, semi-quantitative assessment provides a layer of vulnerability on top of climate envelope models, until such times as more extensive physiological data sets can be produced. The risk assessment identified more species that are likely to benefit from the near-future predicted change (the winners), especially predators and deposit feeders. Fewer species were scored at risk (the losers), although animals that feed on krill scored consistently as under the highest risk.

Continue reading ‘Predicting which species succeed in climate-forced polar seas’

Scientist interview: meet Ashley Rossin

Ashley and student Alyx Gough test out their pore water sampling protocol at the Kasistna Bay Laboratory beach using a “clam gun”.

Ashley Rossin is a PhD student at the University of Alaska Fairbanks studying the effect of ocean acidification on bivalves with Dr. Amanda Kelley.

Q: Tell us a little bit about your background and how you got interested in ocean acidification.

I was always interested in science as a kid, and I was constantly asking questions. When I was 14 I went SCUBA diving for the first time, and I was amazed at the colors and the life that lived just below the surface. In the midst of that, I saw a stark white coral head, and didn’t understand why it was white. When we surfaced, I asked the dive master about it, and he explained coral bleaching, and how it was happening more and more often due to the increase in temperature. I started looking into it more, and learned that tropical corals bleach due to their symbiotic algae leaving during stress, but there was a type of coral that didn’t have that algae. I wondered what was going to happen to them with climate change. From there I found a researcher at UMaine who studied human impacts on cold-water corals. I did my undergrad and masters with her.

Continue reading ‘Scientist interview: meet Ashley Rossin’

But I like it sparkling: why we don’t want acidic oceans

Oceans make up nearly three quarters of our planet’s surface and are home to over 300,000 currently described species, with an estimated 95% of the total number yet to be discovered. But just how important are these species and why should we care to protect them?

Life underwater is so fundamentally important to our existence that we would struggle to breath without it: seven out of every ten breaths we take are using oxygen produced by phytoplankton in the oceans. In addition, the contents of the oceans constitute a large part of our diet, with 15.7% of animal protein we eat coming from seafood. A less anthropocentric argument for protecting the oceans is that life under the sea is so wonderfully biodiverse and has been for so long, containing thousands of ancient species, that we should want it kept that way. It’s possible that the greatest threat to many species in the oceans is rather indirect, in the form of ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘But I like it sparkling: why we don’t want acidic oceans’

Full carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification in a tropical coral

Microcolony of the coral Stylophora pistillata, also called Smooth Cauliflower Coral, with microsensor.
Credit: Eric Tambutté, Centre Scientifique de Monaco

Coral reefs are made up of massive calcium carbonate skeletons. The present study, published in Science Advances on January 16th 2019, reveals insights into the process of calcification, namely the process that leads to the formation of these skeletons. Elucidating coral calcification is key to a deeper understanding and better predictions of how and why coral reefs respond to environmental changes, such as ocean acidification.

“By combining microscopy and microsensor measurements, we were able to directly measure calcium, carbonate and pH at the site of calcification in coral microcolonies of Stylophora pistillata and derive important carbonate chemistry parameters from it. We show that all measured and derived parameters are higher at the coral than in the surrounding seawater. This points to the importance of calcium and carbon concentrating mechanisms that are actively regulated by the coral to form its skeleton,” says lead author Duygu Sevilgen, scientist at the CSM and former PhD-student at the Max-Planck-Institute for Marine Microbiology.

Continue reading ‘Full carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification in a tropical coral’

Full in vivo characterization of carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification in corals

Reef-building corals form their calcium carbonate skeletons within an extracellular calcifying medium (ECM). Despite the critical role of the ECM in coral calcification, ECM carbonate chemistry is poorly constrained in vivo, and full ECM carbonate chemistry has never been characterized based solely on direct in vivo measurements. Here, we measure pHECM in the growing edge of Stylophora pistillata by simultaneously using microsensors and the fluorescent dye SNARF-1, showing that, when measured at the same time and place, the results agree. We then conduct microscope-guided microsensor measurements of pH, [Ca2+], and [CO32−] in the ECM and, from this, determine [DIC]ECM and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), showing that all parameters are elevated with respect to the surrounding seawater. Our study provides the most complete in vivo characterization of ECM carbonate chemistry parameters in a coral species to date, pointing to the key role of calcium- and carbon-concentrating mechanisms in coral calcification.

Continue reading ‘Full in vivo characterization of carbonate chemistry at the site of calcification in corals’

Modeling impact of varying pH due to carbondioxide on the dynamics of prey–predator species system

In this paper, we have considered a nonlinear mathematical model to investigate the effect of pH on prey–predator dynamics with Holling type II functional response. In the model, capture rate, handling time, growth rate and death rate are considered to be pH dependent. From the analysis of the model, it has been observed that as pH level goes below the normal tolerance limit of prey species then the equilibrium density of prey population decreases due to increase in capture rate and decrease in handling time by predator. Further, we have shown that as the growth rate of prey population decreases due to lowering of pH then the density of predator population also decreases and both the populations may tend to extinction if growth rate of prey population becomes negative due to lowering of pH on account of elevated carbondioxide concentration in the aquatic body. Moreover, it is noticed from the simulation that if the mortality of predator population increases because of decrease in pH level then the prey population gets advantage and in-turn their population increases.

Continue reading ‘Modeling impact of varying pH due to carbondioxide on the dynamics of prey–predator species system’


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