Oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 is reducing seawater pH and shifting seawater carbonate chemistry—a process known as ocean acidification (OA). Studies have demonstrated that OA would affect a broad range of biological processes and physiological functions of marine organisms, including fertilization, larval development, calcification, metabolism, immune responses, growth, and behavior. However, there have been fewer detailed investigations of OA’s impacts on the physiological processes of marine organisms at the biochemical and cellular levels; therefore the mechanisms responsible for these effects remain largely unclear. The present chapter reviews the potential mechanisms underpinning the impacts of OA on marine animals, which include the following: (1) disturbance of acid–base homeostasis and energy reallocation by OA; (2) alteration in the normal function of neurotransmitters due to OA; (3) interference with the transduction of neural signals by OA; and (4) OA’s influence on the expression patterns of genes and proteins involved in key biological processes.
Shi W. & Liu G., 2021. Chapter four – Potential mechanisms underpinning the impacts of ocean acidification on marine animals. In: Liu G. (Ed.), Ocean Acidification and Marine Wildlife: Physiological and Behavioral Impacts, pp 155-192. Elsevier: Academic Press. Chapter (restricted access).