Archive for March, 2021

Postdoctoral Associate – (Job Number: 2100785)

Official Job Title: Postdoctoral Associate

Job Field: Post Doctoral

Primary Location: US-NY-Stony Brook

Department/Hiring Area: Electrical Engineering-The Research Foundation for The State University of New York at Stony Brook

Schedule: Full-time 

Shift: Day Shift 

Shift Hours: 9:00 a.m. – 5:00 p.m.  

Posting Start Date: Mar 30, 2021

Posting End Date: Apr 27, 2021, 5:59:00 AM

Salary: Commensurate with experience.

Salary Grade: E89

Appointment Type: Regular

Continue reading ‘Postdoctoral Associate – (Job Number: 2100785)’

Impact of dust addition on the metabolism of Mediterranean plankton communities and carbon export under present and future conditions of pH and temperature

Although atmospheric dust fluxes from arid as well as human-impacted areas represent a significant source of nutrients to surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea, studies focusing on the evolution of the metabolic balance of the plankton community following a dust deposition event are scarce and none were conducted in the context of projected future levels of temperature and pH. Moreover, most of the experiments took place in coastal areas. In the framework of the PEACETIME project, three dust-addition perturbation experiments were conducted in 300-L tanks filled with surface seawater collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea (TYR), Ionian Sea (ION) and in the Algerian basin (FAST) onboard the R/V “Pourquoi Pas?” in late spring 2017. For each experiment, six tanks were used to follow the evolution of chemical and biological stocks, biological activity and particle export. The impacts of a dust deposition event simulated at their surface were followed under present environmental conditions and under a realistic climate change scenario for 2100 (ca. +3 °C and −0.3 pH units). The tested waters were all typical of stratified oligotrophic conditions encountered in the open Mediterranean Sea at this period of the year, with low rates of primary production and a metabolic balance towards net heterotrophy. The release of nutrients after dust seeding had very contrasting impacts on the metabolism of the communities, depending on the station investigated. At TYR, the release of new nutrients was followed by a negative impact on both particulate and dissolved 14C-based production rates, while heterotrophic bacterial production strongly increased, driving the community to an even more heterotrophic state. At ION and FAST, the efficiency of organic matter export due to mineral/organic aggregation processes was lower than at TYR likely related to a lower quantity/age of dissolved organic matter present at the time of the seeding. At these stations, both the autotrophic and heterotrophic community benefited from dust addition, with a stronger relative increase in autotrophic processes observed at FAST. Our study showed that the potential positive impact of dust deposition on primary production depends on the initial composition and metabolic state of the investigated community. This potential is constrained by the quantity of nutrients added in order to sustain both the fast response of heterotrophic prokaryotes and the delayed one of primary producers. Finally, under future environmental conditions, heterotrophic metabolism was overall more impacted than primary production, with the consequence that all integrated net community production rates decreased with no detectable impact on carbon export, therefore reducing the capacity of surface waters to sequester anthropogenic CO2.

Continue reading ‘Impact of dust addition on the metabolism of Mediterranean plankton communities and carbon export under present and future conditions of pH and temperature’

Partner preference in the intertidal: possible benefits of ocean acidification to sea anemone-algal symbiosis

Ocean acidification (OA) threatens many marine species and is projected to become more severe over the next 50 years. Areas of the Salish Sea and Puget Sound that experience seasonal upwelling of low pH water are particularly susceptible to even lower pH conditions. While ocean acidification literature often describes negative impacts to calcifying organisms, including economically important shellfish, and zooplankton, not all marine species appear to be
threatened by OA. Photosynthesizing organisms, in particular, may benefit from increased levels of CO2. The aggregating anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima), a common intertidal organism throughout the northeast Pacific, hosts two photosynthetic symbionts: Symbiodinium muscatinei (a dinoflagellate) and Elliptochloris marina (a chlorophyte). The holobiont, therefore, consists of both a cnidarian host and a photosymbiont that could be affected differently by the changing levels of environmental CO2. To determine the effects of OA on this important marine organism, A. elegantissima in each of four symbiotic conditions (hosting S. muscatinei, hosting E. marina, hosting mixed symbiont assemblages, or symbiont free) were subjected to one of three pCO2 levels (800 ppm, 1200 ppm, or 1800 ppm) of OA for 10 weeks. At regular intervals, gross photosynthesis and density of the symbionts, respiration rate of the hosts, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the host, and percent of organic carbon received by the host from the symbiont (CZAR) were measured. Over the 10-week period of the experiment, the densities of symbionts responded differently to an increase in pCO2, increasing in anemones hosting S. muscatinei but decreasing for those hosting E. marina. Similarly, anemones of mixed symbiont complement that started with approximately 50% of each symbiont type shifted toward a higher percentage of S. muscatinei with higher pCO2. Both gross photosynthesis and dark respiration were significantly affected by pCO2 and symbiont state, though we cannot say that the symbiontsv responded differently to increased OA. Symbiont state was a significant predictor for ROS concentration, with greatest levels seen in anemones hosting E. marina and for CZAR score, with greatest levels in anemones hosting S. muscatinei, our linear models did not reveal pCO2 as a significant factor in these responses. Together, these results suggest that S. muscatinei may benefit from elevated pCO2 levels and that A. elegantissima hosting that symbiont may have a competitive advantage under some future scenarios of ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Partner preference in the intertidal: possible benefits of ocean acidification to sea anemone-algal symbiosis’

Assessing ocean acidification as a driver for enhanced metals uptake by blue mussels

Research Area(s): Stressor Impacts and Mitigation / Biological Effects of Contaminants and Nutrients

Region(s) of Study: Waterbodies / Gulf of MaineU.S. States and Territories / New Hampshire

Primary Contact(s): dave.whitall@noaa.govdennis.apeti@noaa.gov

This project began in April 2021 and is projected to end in September 2024.

Ocean acidification, resulting from changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, will impact how a variety of chemicals, including metals, behave in the environment. This could lead to increased uptake of metals in important species, such as blue mussels. Body burdens of pollutants in bivalves are important considerations for seafood safety and, as a result, aquaculture. We will explore these relationships both in the laboratory and the field, and produce a robust data set that will be useful to stakeholders in coastal management and aquaculture and provide the societal benefit of better informed aquaculture siting.

Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis).

Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis). Credit: NOAA NMFS.

Continue reading ‘Assessing ocean acidification as a driver for enhanced metals uptake by blue mussels’

Application for analysis of ocean acidification and multiple stressor extremes

The Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program at Princeton University in cooperation with NOAA’s Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) seeks a postdoctoral or more senior scientist to identify oceanic areas subject to extremes in individual and multiple biogeochemical stressors (e.g. ocean acidification, temperature, ocean deoxygenation), and evaluate against site-specific observations to help inform requirements for future instrument deployment, as well as the development of sustainable management strategies. The incumbent will leverage GFDL’s existing 1/2 degree fully-coupled Earth System Model (ESM4.1) and an experimental suite including historical, climate change, mitigation, and idealized scenarios to a) conduct time slice model simulations to generate required model output, b) assess global and regional trends and variability of ocean stressor extremes, c) implement a coastal residence time tracer, and d) assess coastal residence times. The incumbent will also conduct place-based analyses of multiple stressor extremes through compiling and assessing NOAA Ocean Acidification Program (OAP) buoy observations for comparison to model data. Lastly, the incumbent will develop a compilation of co-located marine stressors and associated ecosystem metrics for US territorial waters and Marine Protected Areas. Personnel will join an active group at Princeton and GFDL studying the connections between biogeochemistry, ecosystems, and climate (https://www.gfdl.noaa.gov/marine-ecosystems/).

This is a one-year appointment, renewable each year up to three years pending satisfactory performance and funding. This position is based at GFDL in Princeton, New Jersey. Complete applications, including a cover letter, CV, publication list, a one to two-page statement of research interests and names of at least 3 references in order to solicit letters of recommendation, should be submitted online https://www.princeton.edu/acad-positions/position/19941 by May 1, 2021 11:59 p.m. EST for full consideration, though evaluation will be ongoing.

Essential Qualifications: PhD is required. Candidates with quantitative, interdisciplinary knowledge from subsets of fields including climate dynamics, ocean and coastal biogeochemistry, marine ecosystem dynamics, and fisheries science and management are particularly encouraged to apply. Experience analyzing large data sets and/or model output is also critical, as is model development experience for those positions.

This position is subject to the University’s background check policy. Princeton University is an equal opportunity/affirmative action employer, and all qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to age, race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, national origin, disability status, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law.

Continue reading ‘Application for analysis of ocean acidification and multiple stressor extremes’

Scitech programs: ocean acidification

A graphic showing different molecules

Date: Saturday April 24, 2021

Time: 2:00 pm – 2:45 pm

Huei-Chen Lee, Ph.D.

K-12 Science Education Program Manager

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Audience: All Ages

We will explain the meaning of ocean acidification through chemical reaction, video, and discussion.

REGISTER

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Tissue comparison of transcriptional response to acute acidification stress of barramundi Lates calcarifer in coastal and estuarine areas

Highlights

  • Assessed tissues response of barramundi in acidification stress by RNA-seq analysis
  • Acidification inhibited the immune function of barramundi in different tissues.
  • Provided insights for susceptible physiological processes to acidification stress

Abstract

In order to explore the common and unique physiological changes in tissues of juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer in acidified water environment, RNA sequence analysis was used to analyze the molecular responses of liver, head kidney, and gill of juvenile barramundi in pH 7.4 and pH 8.1 seawater environment. The number of differential expression genes identified in liver, head kidney and gill were 860, 388 and 1792, respectively. Through functional enrichment analysis, the differential expression genes common to the three tissues were all related to immunity. Among the unique differential genes in the liver, pathways related to digestion, endocrine, and metabolism were enriched. Among the unique differential expression genes in gill, pathways related to genetic information processing, immunity and metabolism were enriched. The findings of the present study uncover the transcriptional changes in fish correspond to environmental pH change, and provide a better understanding on the biological process at molecular level to environmental pH adapting. This work highlights that assessments for the potential of estuarine fishes to cope with environmental pH change to develop the future conservation strategies.

Continue reading ‘Tissue comparison of transcriptional response to acute acidification stress of barramundi Lates calcarifer in coastal and estuarine areas’

Risk assessment for key socio-economic and ecological species in a sub-arctic marine ecosystem under combined ocean acidification and warming

The Arctic may be particularly vulnerable to the consequences of both ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, given the faster pace of warming and acidification. Here, we use the Atlantis ecosystem model to assess how the trophic network of marine fishes and invertebrates in the Icelandic waters is responding to the combined pressures of OA and warming. We develop an approach which allows us to focus on species of economic (catch-value), social (number of participants in fisheries), or ecological (keystone species) importance. We parameterize the model with literature-determined ranges of sensitivity to OA and warming for different species and functional groups in the Icelandic waters. We found divergent species responses to warming and acidification levels; (mainly) planktonic groups and forage fish benefited while (mainly) benthic groups and predatory fish decreased under warming and acidification scenarios. Assuming conservative harvest rates for the largest catch-value species, Atlantic cod, we see that the population is projected to remain stable under even the harshest acidification and warming scenario. Further, for the scenarios where the model projects reductions in biomass of Atlantic cod, other species in the ecosystem increase, likely due to a reduction in competition and predation. These results highlight the interdependencies of multiple global change drivers and their cascading effects on trophic organization, and the supply of an important species from a socio-economic perspective in the Icelandic fisheries.

Continue reading ‘Risk assessment for key socio-economic and ecological species in a sub-arctic marine ecosystem under combined ocean acidification and warming’

How to destroy a planet

The focus of climate change research has been with the anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide and the impact of
increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere on; the climate, marine biological productivity and
biodiversity. Climate change is an equation, what goes into the atmosphere must be removed. Over the last 70 years since the chemical revolution, starting in the 1950’s, we have been destroying natural ecosystems with toxic-for-ever chemicals and plastic. The oceans represent our greatest carbon bank with a potential to sequester most of the carbon generated from the burning of fossil fuels, but productivity and biodiversity in the oceans are declining, and we could be faced with a trophic cascade collapse of the entire marine ecosystem. All life of earth depends upon a healthy ocean ecosystem, and we cannot solve climate change without protecting the oceans. This report details the sequence of events that are likely to occur and the actions that need to happen to prevent the collapse of the marine ecosystem and to avoid the worst of climate change.

Continue reading ‘How to destroy a planet’

Time series of autonomous carbonate system parameter measurements in middle Tampa Bay, Florida, USA (metadata, version 3.0)

This dataset contains carbonate system data collected by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center to investigate the effects of carbon cycling, coastal and ocean acidification on the Tampa Bay estuary located in west central Florida, USA. These data were collected using an autonomous instrument called the Ocean Carbon System version 2 (OCSv2) deployed on the seafloor in Tampa Bay. The OCSv2 consists of four sensors integrated into a Sea-Bird Scientific (Satlantic) STOR-X submersible data logger including a Satlantic SeapHOx sensor for measurement of pH that incorporates a Sea-Bird SBE 37-SMP-ODO MicroCAT C-T-ODO (P) Recorder for measurement of conductivity (for calculation of salinity), temperature, depth, and dissolved oxygen; a Pro-Oceanus CO2-Pro CV CO2 sensor; and a Wetlabs Eco-PAR sensor for measurement of photosynthetically active radiation. The dataset is a time series of carbonate system parameters including: water temperature (Celsius, °C), pressure (decibar, dbar), salinity, pHT (pH on the total scale), carbon dioxide (parts per million, ppm), pressure from the CO2-Pro Infrared Gas Analyzer (IRGA) (millibars, mbar), dissolved oxygen (milligrams per liter, mg/L) and photosynthetically active radiation (microEinsteins). Each parameter was measured every hour for 24-hour time periods throughout the duration of deployment.

Continue reading ‘Time series of autonomous carbonate system parameter measurements in middle Tampa Bay, Florida, USA (metadata, version 3.0)’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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