Effect of the UV filter, Benzophenone-3, on biomarkers of the yellow clam (Amarilladesma mactroides) under different pH conditions

Highlights

• Effects of Benzophenone-3 and low pH on the yellow clam, Amarilladesma mactroides

• Benzophenone-3 affects antioxidant defenses in gills and digestive glands.

• Water acidification affects Ca2+-ATPase activity.

• Water acidification and Benzophenone-3 together inhibit carbonic anhydrase activity.

• Acidification may enhance the toxicity of Benzophenone-3.

Abstract

This work aimed to investigate effects of the ocean contamination by the sunscreen Benzophenone-3 (BP3) and acidification, caused by CO2 enrichment, to the yellow clam, Amarilladesma mactroides. Biochemical biomarkers were analyzed in tissues (gills, digestive gland, and mantle) of clams exposed to the environmental concentration of 1 μg/L BP3, at seawater natural pH (pH 8.1) and at lower pH (pH 7.6). The tissues responded in different ways considering their physiological roles. In general, BP3 altered activity of the enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione cysteine ligase (GCL); but mostly increased the level of glutathione (GSH). These effects were enhanced by acidification, without augmenting lipid peroxidation (LPO). Carbonic anhydrase activity (CA) increased after BP3 exposure in the digestive gland and decreased in the gills at pH 7.6, while Ca2+-ATPase activity was affected by acidification only. Changing levels of these enzymes can alter shell formation and affect the bivalve maintenance in impacted environments.

Lopes F. C., de Castro M. R., Barbosa S. C., Primel E. G. & Martins C. M. G., 2020. Effect of the UV filter, Benzophenone-3, on biomarkers of the yellow clam (Amarilladesma mactroides) under different pH conditions. Marine Pollution Bulletin 158: 111401. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111401. Article (subscription required).


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