Archive for March, 2016

Plastic and evolved responses to global change: what can we learn from comparative transcriptomics?

Physiological plasticity and adaptive evolution may facilitate persistence in a changing environment. As a result, there is an interest in understanding species’ capacities for plastic and evolved responses, and the mechanisms by which these responses occur. Transcriptome sequencing has become a powerful tool for addressing these questions, providing insight into otherwise unobserved effects of changing conditions on organismal physiology and variation in these effects among individuals and populations. Here, we review recent studies using comparative transcriptomics to understand plastic and evolutionary responses to changing environments. We focus on 2 areas where transcriptomics has played an important role: first, in understanding the genetic basis for local adaptation to current gradients as a proxy for future adaptation, and second, in understanding organismal responses to multiple stressors. We find most studies examining multiple stressors have tested the effects of each stressor individually; the few studies testing multiple stressors simultaneously have found synergistic effects on gene expression that would not have been predicted from single stressor studies. We discuss the importance of robust experimental design to allow for a more sophisticated characterization of transcriptomic responses and conclude by offering recommendations for future research, including integrating genomics with transcriptomics, testing gene regulatory networks, and comparing the equivalence of transcription to translation and the effects of environmental stress on the proteome.

Continue reading ‘Plastic and evolved responses to global change: what can we learn from comparative transcriptomics?’

Ocean acidification and increased temperature have both positive and negative effects on early ontogenetic traits of a rocky shore keystone predator species

The combined effect of ocean acidification and warming is expected to have significant effects on several traits of marine organisms. The gastropod Concholepas concholepas is a rocky shore keystone predator characteristic of the south-eastern Pacific coast of South America and an important natural resource exploited by small-scale artisanal fishermen along the coast of Chile and Peru. In this study, we used small juveniles of C. concholepas collected from the rocky intertidal habitats of southern Chile (39°S) to evaluate under laboratory conditions the potential consequences of projected near-future levels of ocean acidification and warming for important early ontogenetic traits. The individuals were exposed long-term (5.8 months) to contrasting pCO2 (ca. 500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 19°C) levels. After this period we compared body growth traits, dislodgement resistance, predator-escape response, self-righting and metabolic rates. With respect to these traits there was no evidence of a synergistic interaction between pCO2 and temperature. Shell growth was negatively affected by high pCO2 levels only at 15°C. High pCO2 levels also had a negative effect on the predator-escape response. Conversely, dislodgement resistance and self-righting were positively affected by high pCO2 levels at both temperatures. High tenacity and fast self-righting would reduce predation risk in nature and might compensate for the negative effects of high pCO2 levels on other important defensive traits such as shell size and escape behaviour. We conclude that climate change might produce in C. concholepas positive and negative effects in physiology and behaviour. In fact, some of the behavioural responses might be a consequence of physiological effects, such as changes in chemosensory capacity (e.g. predator-escape response) or secretion of adhesive mucous (e.g. dislodgement resistance). Moreover, we conclude that positive behavioural responses may assist in the adaptation to negative physiological impacts, and that this may also be the case for other benthic organisms.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification and increased temperature have both positive and negative effects on early ontogenetic traits of a rocky shore keystone predator species’

Keating leads discussion on ocean acidification problem

WOODS HOLE – A meeting organized by 9th District Congressman Bill Keating brought together fellow lawmakers, marine industry representatives and environmental activists Monday for a round table discussion regarding ocean acidification.

It’s an issue the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) said is a result of increasing amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, much like climate change. And, they said, it can dissolve shells.

That’s a big problem for the local fish and shellfish industry, not to mention ecology, according to Keating.

“The other takeaway is that the clock is ticking on this,” Keating said. “It’s not a case where it will happen down the road, it is already happening.”

WHOI reports that ocean acidification is happening “30 to 100 times faster than at any time in the last several million years”.

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PhD scholarship: “Using stable isotope tracers to determine the impact of climate-related stressors on carbon and nitrogen cycling”, Southern Cross University, Australia

Deadline for applications: 18 April 2016!

Shallow-water sediments at the land-sea interface are dynamic sites of carbon and nitrogen processing and therefore play a significant role in oceanic biogeochemical cycling. These processes can, however, be impacted by environmental conditions. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are predicted to be a major cause of changed environmental conditions in the next few decades. Specifically, by the year 2100, it is estimated that rising CO2 levels will decrease ocean pH by 0.3 units, and increase global temperatures by 2 to 6.4°C. Although numerous studies have investigated the effect of these changes on individual marine organisms, few have considered how the combined effect of ocean acidification and rising temperatures may change biogeochemical cycles in coastal sediments. This is significant, as changes in these cycles may affect the quality and quantity of oceanic carbon and nitrogen, which could have far-reaching impacts.

This project aims to use stable isotope tracers to evaluate the consequences of changes in pH and temperature on the source, processing, and fate of carbon and nitrogen in coastal sediments. The project will have a multidisciplinary approach, involving manipulative experiments, stable isotope tracers, and biogeochemical process measurements.

Continue reading ‘PhD scholarship: “Using stable isotope tracers to determine the impact of climate-related stressors on carbon and nitrogen cycling”, Southern Cross University, Australia’

Effects of future climate conditions on photosynthesis and biochemical component of Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)

Ulva pertusa, a common bloom-forming green alga, was used as a model system to examine the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature on growth and photosynthetic performance. To do this, U. pertusa was grown under four temperature and CO2 conditions; ambient CO2 (400 μatm) and temperature (16°C) (i.e., present), elevated temperature only (19°C) (ET; i.e., warming), elevated CO2 only (1,000 μatm) (EC; i.e., acidification), and elevated temperature and CO2 (ET and EC; i.e., greenhouse), and its steady state photosynthetic performance evaluated. Maximum gross photosynthetic rates (GPmax) were highest under EC conditions and lowest under ET conditions. Further, ET conditions resulted in decreased rate of dark respiration (Rd), but growth of U. pertusa was higher under ET conditions than under ambient temperature conditions. In order to evaluate external carbonic anhydrase (eCA) activity, photosynthesis was
measured at 70 μmol photons m-2 s-1 in the presence or absence of the eCA inhibitor acetazolamide (AZ), which inhibited photosynthetic rates in all treatments, indicating eCA activity. However, while AZ reduced U. pertusa photosynthesis in all treatments, this reduction was lower under ambient CO2 conditions (both present and warming) compared to EC conditions (both acidification and greenhouse). Moreover, Chlorophyll a and glucose contents in U. pertusa tissues declined under ET conditions (both warming and greenhouse) in conjunction with reduced GPmax and Rd. Overall, our results indicate that the interaction of EC and ET would offset each other’s impacts on photosynthesis and biochemical composition as related to carbon balance of U. pertusa.

Continue reading ‘Effects of future climate conditions on photosynthesis and biochemical component of Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta)’

Restructuring of epibacterial communities on Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili in response to elevated pCO2 and increased temperature levels

Marine multicellular organisms in composition with their associated microbiota – representing metaorganisms – are confronted with constantly changing environmental conditions. In 2110, the seawater temperature is predicted to be increased by approximately 5 °C, and the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) is expected to reach approximately 1,000 ppm. In order to assess the response of marine metaorganisms to global changes, e.g. by effects on host-microbe interactions, we evaluated the response of epibacterial communities associated with Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili (F. mytili) to future climate conditions. During an 11-week lasting mesocosm experiment on the island of Sylt (Germany) in spring 2014, North Sea F. mytili individuals were exposed to elevated pCO2 (1,000 ppm) and increased temperature levels (∆+5 °C). Both abiotic factors were tested for single and combined effects on the epibacterial community composition over time, with three replicates per treatment. The respective community structures of bacterial consortia associated to the surface of F. mytili were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing after 0, 4, 8 and 11 weeks of treatment (in total 96 samples). The results demonstrated that the epibacterial community structure was strongly affected by temperature, but only weakly by elevated pCO2. No interaction effect of both factors was observed in the combined treatment. We identified several indicator operational taxonomic units (iOTUs) that were strongly influenced by the respective experimental factors. An OTU association network analysis revealed that relationships between OTUs were mainly governed by habitat. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of how epibacterial communities associated with F. mytili may adapt to future changes in seawater acidity and temperature, ultimately with potential consequences for host-microbe interactions.

Continue reading ‘Restructuring of epibacterial communities on Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili in response to elevated pCO2 and increased temperature levels’

Life under climate change scenarios: sea urchins’ cellular mechanisms for reproductive success

Ocean Acidification (OA) represents a major field of research and increased efforts are being made to elucidate its repercussions on biota. Species survival is ensured by successful reproduction, which may be threatened under detrimental environmental conditions, such as OA acting in synergy with other climate change related stressors. Achieving successful gametogenesis, fertilization, and the development of larvae into healthy juveniles and adults is crucial for the perpetuation of species and, thus, ecosystems’ functionality. The considerable vulnerability of the abovementioned developmental stages to the adverse conditions that future OA may impose has been shown in many species, including sea urchins which are commonly used due to the feasibility of their maintenance in captivity and the great amount of gametes that a mature adult is able to produce. In the present review, the latest knowledge about the impact of OA on various stages of the life cycle of sea urchins is summarized with remarks on the possible impact of other stressors. The cellular physiology of the gametes before, at fertilization and, at early development, is extensively described with a focus on the complex enzymatic machinery and the intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ homeostasis for their vulnerability when facing adverse conditions such as acidification, temperature variations, or hypoxia.

Continue reading ‘Life under climate change scenarios: sea urchins’ cellular mechanisms for reproductive success’

Using present-day observations to detect when anthropogenic change forces surface ocean carbonate chemistry outside pre-industrial bounds

One of the major challenges to assessing the impact of ocean acidification on marine life is the need to better understand the magnitude of long-term change in the context of natural variability. This study addresses this need through a global synthesis of monthly pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) climatologies for 12 open ocean, coastal, and coral reef locations using 3-hourly moored observations of surface seawater partial pressure of CO2 and pH collected together since as early as 2010. Mooring observations suggest open ocean subtropical and subarctic sites experience present-day surface pH and Ωarag conditions outside the bounds of pre-industrial variability throughout most, if not all, of the year. In general, coastal mooring sites experience more natural variability and thus, more overlap with pre-industrial conditions; however, present day Ωarag conditions surpass biologically relevant thresholds associated with ocean acidification impacts on Mytilus californianus (Ωarag < 1.8) and Crassostrea gigas (Ωarag < 2.0) larvae in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and Mya arenaria larvae in the Gulf of Maine (Ωarag < 1.6). At the most variable mooring locations in coastal systems of the CCE, subseasonal conditions approached Ωarag = 1. Global and regional models and data syntheses of ship-based observations tended to underestimate seasonal variability compared to mooring observations. Efforts such as this to characterize all modes of pH and Ωarag variability and change at key locations are fundamental to assessing present-day biological impacts of ocean acidification, further improving experimental design to interrogate organism response under real-world conditions, and improving predictive models and vulnerability assessments seeking to quantify the broader impacts of ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Using present-day observations to detect when anthropogenic change forces surface ocean carbonate chemistry outside pre-industrial bounds’

Are global warming and ocean acidification conspiring against marine ectotherms? A meta-analysis of the respiratory effects of elevated temperature, high CO2 and their interaction

With the occurrence of global change, research aimed at estimating the performance of marine ectotherms in a warmer and acidified future has intensified. The concept of oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance, which is inspired by the Fry paradigm of a bell-shaped increase–optimum–decrease-type response of aerobic scope to increasing temperature, but also includes proposed negative and synergistic effects of elevated CO2 levels, has been suggested as a unifying framework. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to assess the following: (i) the generality of a bell-shaped relationship between absolute aerobic scope (AAS) and temperature; (ii) to what extent elevated CO2 affects resting oxygen uptake MO2rest and AAS; and (iii) whether there is an interaction between elevated temperature and CO2. The behavioural effects of CO2 are also briefly discussed. In 31 out of 73 data sets (both acutely exposed and acclimated), AAS increased and remained above 90% of the maximum, whereas a clear thermal optimum was observed in the remaining 42 data sets. Carbon dioxide caused a significant rise in MO2rest in only 18 out of 125 data sets, and a decrease in 25, whereas it caused a decrease in AAS in four out of 18 data sets and an increase in two. The analysis did not reveal clear evidence for an overall correlation with temperature, CO2 regime or duration of CO2 treatment. When CO2 had an effect, additive rather than synergistic interactions with temperature were most common and, interestingly, they even interacted antagonistically on MO2rest and AAS. The behavioural effects of CO2 could complicate experimental determination of respiratory performance. Overall, this meta-analysis reveals heterogeneity in the responses to elevated temperature and CO2 that is not in accordance with the idea of a single unifying principle and which cannot be ignored in attempts to model and predict the impacts of global warming and ocean acidification on marine ectotherms.

Continue reading ‘Are global warming and ocean acidification conspiring against marine ectotherms? A meta-analysis of the respiratory effects of elevated temperature, high CO2 and their interaction’

Observed and projected impacts of climate change on marine fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism, and human health: an update

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) states that climate change and ocean acidification are altering the oceans at a rate that is unprecedented compared with the recent past, leading to multifaceted impacts on marine ecosystems, associated goods and services, and human societies. AR5 underlined key uncertainties that remain regarding how synergistic changes in the ocean are likely to affect human systems, and how humans are likely to respond to these events. As climate change research has accelerated rapidly following AR5, an updated synthesis of available knowledge is necessary to identify emerging evidence, and to thereby better inform policy discussions. This paper reviews the literature to capture corroborating, conflicting, and novel findings published following the cut-off date for contribution to AR5. Specifically, we highlight key scientific developments on the impacts of climate-induced changes in the ocean on key socioeconomic sectors, including fisheries, aquaculture and tourism. New evidence continues to support a climate-induced redistribution of benefits and losses at multiple scales and across coastal and marine socio-ecological systems, partly resulting from species and ecosystem range shifts and changes in primary productivity. New efforts have been made to characterize and value ecosystem services in the context of climate change, with specific relevance to ecosystem-based adaptation. Recent studies have also explored synergistic interactions between climatic drivers, and have found strong variability between impacts on species at different life stages. Although climate change may improve conditions for some types of freshwater aquaculture, potentially providing alternative opportunities to adapt to impacts on wild capture fisheries, ocean acidification poses a risk to shellfish fisheries and aquaculture. The risk of increased prevalence of disease under warmer temperatures is uncertain, and may detrimentally affect human health. Climate change may also induce changes in tourism flows, leading to substantial geospatial shifts in economic costs and benefits associated with tourism revenue and coastal infrastructure protection and repairs. While promising, ecosystem-based coastal adaptation approaches are still emerging, and require an improved understanding of key ecosystem services and values for coastal communities in order to assess risk, aid coastal development planning, and build decision support systems.

Continue reading ‘Observed and projected impacts of climate change on marine fisheries, aquaculture, coastal tourism, and human health: an update’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book