The influence of engineered Fe2O3 nanoparticles and soluble (FeCl3) iron on the developmental toxicity caused by CO2-induced seawater acidification

An embryo development assay using a common test organism, the edible mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), exposed to both Fe2O3 nanoparticles and soluble FeCl3 at 3 acidic pHs, has provided evidence for the following: (1) CO2 enriched seawater adjusted to pH projections for carbon capture leakage scenarios (CCS) significantly impaired embryo development; (2) under natural pH conditions, no significant effect was detected following exposure of embryos to Fe, no matter if in nano- or soluble form; (3) at pH of natural seawater nano-Fe particles aggregate into large, polydisperse and porous particles, with no biological impact detected; (4) at pH 6 and 7, such aggregates may moderate the damage associated with CO2 enrichment as indicated by an increased prevalence of normal D-shell larvae when nano-Fe was present in the seawater at pH 7, while soluble iron benefited embryo development at pH 6, and (5) the observed effects of iron on pH-induced development toxicity were concentration dependent.

Developmental toxicity of hypercapnia mediated by exposure to engineered Fe2O3.

Kadar, E., Simmance, F., Martin, O., Voulvoulis, N., Widdicombe, S., Mitov, S., Lead, J. R., & Readman, J. W., 2010. The influence of engineered Fe2O3 nanoparticles and soluble (FeCl3) iron on the developmental toxicity caused by CO2-induced seawater acidification. Environmental Pollution 158(12):3490-3497. Article (subscription required).


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